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62 terms

hn 413 test 5 - cereal grains & pastas

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cereal
refers to grain in general. cereal grains are seeds from grass family Graminae. grains are world major food crops. corn, wheat, rice and barely together account for 95% of world's production of grains
cereals have been cultivated since >8000 yrs ago
husk
protects grain from elements; usually not consumed ("fiber supplements")
bran
14.5% - excellent source of fiber & minerals. removed from grains as they are processed into white flour
endosperm
83% - basis for all flours; excellent source of complex carbs (starch)
germ
2.5% - sold separately as "wheat germ". rich in fat, some incomplete protein, vitamins & minerals
nutrient content of grains: carbs
excellent source; may not be good fiber source, depends on processing
protein of grains
incomplete - low in essential amino acid lysine. has methionine which legumes don't - often paired w/ legumes
fat of grains
low in fat, contains no cholesterol
vitamins & minerals in grains
many lost during milling, so often enriched w/ thiamin (b1) riboflavin (b2) and niacin. often w/ iron too
fiber in grains
"whole grains" products are good source of soluble fiber, which has been shown to reduce high blood cholesterol and help stabilize high blood sugar. also good source of insoluble fiber, which may help reduce risk of color cancer. health-related benefits of fiber have resulted in many food companies touting products as being high in fiber
use of cereal grains
flour, pasta, breakfast cereal, alcoholic beverages, and animal feeds
flour
*fine powder obtained from crushing endosperm of grain
*"whole-grain" flours have also bran and germ milled in. shelf life of these is shorter than pure white b/c of presence of germ (rich in fats, susceptible to spoilage)
extrusion of pasta & breakfast cereals
*raw materials are first ground to correct particle size (~flour)
*dry mix is passed through pre-conditioner, where other ingredients are added (liquid, sugar, fats, dyes... and water depending on product being made) steam also injected to start cooking process
-preconditioned mix is passed through extruder, forced through a die where it is cut to desired length. cooking process takes place w/in extruder where product produces its own friction and heat due to pressure generated
use of extrusion cooking process gives following food benefits:
starch gelatinization, protein denaturation, inactivation of raw food enzymes, destruction of naturally occurring toxins, diminishing of microorganisms in final product
types of cereal grains
wheat, rice, corn, other grains, refined & whole grains
uses of wheat
75% milled into flour
25 % cereals, pastas, animal feed, wheat germ, wheat germ oil
14 species of wheat
common, club and durum account almost 90% of all wheat ground in world
wheat classification
defined by growing season:
winter (hard) - durum - hardest & highest protein content, bread and pasta
spring (soft) - flour has lower protein content; cakes, cookies, cracker & pastries
defined by color: red, white, yellow, amber - once wheat is milled, all are white
forms of wheat
wheat berries - whole unprocessed kernels
bulgur - wheat berries that have been steamed, dried and crushed
cracked wheat - whole berry broken into coarse, medium and fine fragments
farina - "cream of wheat"
plus - rolled wheat, wheat germ and wheat bran
rice cultivation method classification
-lowland/wet/irrigated: accounts for 90% of all rice grown; roots submerged in water
-highland/hill/dry
rice grain length classification
-determined by length in relationship to width
-long, medium and short grain
rice texture classification
-long grain: drier, fluffier and grains separate when cooked (more amylose)
-medium & short grain: stickier when cooked (higher in amylopectin)
rice lengths: long, medium and short
long- 4x's longer than wide. drier, fluffier
medium - 2-3x's longer than wide. moist, tender & sticky
short - almost round. moist & sticky
white rice
milled and polished to remove husk, bran and germ. processing removes fiber, most B vitamins and iron; if enriched, the latter 2 are replaced
converted rice
long-grain rice that has been soaked, steamed under pressure, and dried before milling
-commonly used in food service b/c stays firm and separate
instant rice
rice that has been cooked and then rehydrated. takes only a few minutes to make. inferior texture - grains often split and become dry
brown rice
only hull removed; germ and bran remain intact - higher fiber. longer cooking time. tougher texture than white
glutinous rice
slightly sweeter, stickier and more translucent than regular rice. easily shaped and molded; preferred for rice dumplings and sushi
specialty rice
long-grain rices w/ nuttier taste and separate easily. ex: basmati, jasmine, texmati, and wehani
wild rice
NOT really nice. belongs to family of reed-like water plants called Zizania aquatica. harvested from areas in great lakes region and in canada, this "rice" has higher protein and B vitamin content than its psuedo-counterparts
corn
classified by kernel type. forms: on the cob, kernel corn, hominy, corn/hominy grits, cornmeal, cornstarch, corn syrup, corn oil
barley
(pearl - bran removed). malt, cereal, soups, livestock feed, beers & whiskey. chewy, nutty. Malt: germinated barley that has been gently dried to stop growth of germination roots while leaving intact enzymes that contribute to flavor and color
sorghum
a type of cereal grain. in spreads, alcoholic beverages and livestock feeds, bread, cakes and gluten free!
oats
type of cereal grain. in hot/cold cereals, breads, muffings, cookies, livestock feed. forms: oat groats, steel-cut oats, rolled oats, oat bran
rye
type of cereal grain. in bread, crackers and whiskey. contains less protein (gluten) and starch than wheat.
other types of cereal grains
farro, millet, triticale, kamut
factors that influence amount of water, heat intensity and cooking time in prep of cereal grains
form of grain, presence of bran or hull, pH of water, desired tenderness
changes during heating of cereal grains
water softens outer covering and makes starchy endosperm digestible, starch gelatinizes - grain absorbs water, softens and expands - improving texture and flavor
boiling
most common prep method for grains like rice
sauteing/pilaf method
*useful for rice and bulgur
-Saute grain in fat
-Pour boiling chicken broth/other stock over grain and cover
-reduce heat and simmer until done
baking
grains can be prepared in a casserole dish & baked in oven if enough liquid is provided. usually 20-30 min.
hot breakfast cereals
Sprinkle cereal slowly over boiling water while stirring OR mix cereal w/ cold water to make slurry before adding it to hot water. once cereal added, maintain slow boil & stir occasionally until grains are translucent
*most common: oatmeal, farina, hominy, cream of rice, bulgur
Forms: regular, quick-cooking, instant
pasta
semolina flour starch + water
*Semolina derived from durum wheat
-higher protein content = high quality pasta (gives pasta elasticity and helps maintain shape during cooking)
-higher carotenoid content (pigments) - contribute to pasta's rich, golden color (may come from egg yolks too, other common thing in pasta)
*most pastas made in US are enriched w/ several B vitamins and iron
types of pasta
lasagna, spaghetti, vermicelli, linguine, fettuccine, wagon wheels, bowlie, egg noodles, jumbo shells, elbow, shells, orzo, ziti
pasta nomenclature: noodles
contain eggs
pasta nomenclature: asian noodles
made from flours other than semolina or farina - don't contain eggs
pasta nomenclature: whole wheat
made from whole-wheat flour. tougher texture & stronger taste
pasta nomenclature: flavored
vegetable purees (spinach, tomato, or beet), herbs, and/or spices added. altered color and flavor
pasta nomenclature: fanciful
unusual shapes (ex: dinosaurs), appeal to children
pasta nomenclature: high-protein
contain soy flour, wheat germ, or dairy products yielding higher protein content
pasta nomenclature: fresh
higher moisture content, results in softer consistency and shorter cooking time
pasta nomenclature: couscous
"moroccan pasta" made from semolina that is cooked, dried and pulverized into small, rough pieces
germ
most of the vitamin E in grains is found in what portion of the kernel
starch
the endosperm of grains is primarily made up of
bulgur wheat
which type of wheat is typically used to make the lebanese dish called Tabouleh?
enrichment
refined grains have 4 vitamins and one mineral added back to them after processing. what is the name of this process?
rye
after wheat, the second most common grain used in bread making is ____
barley
malt is made from germinated (sprouted) ____, so it serves as a source of gluten
soft
what is the best wheat for producing cake flour
gelatinization
_______ is occurring when: starch granules are heated in water, hydrogen bonds within the starch weaken, and water penetrates the starch molecule causing translucency and viscosity
what does NOT take place during extrusion of cereals
activation of enzymes
what changes do take place during extrusion of cereals
starch gelatinization, protein denaturation, and destruction of some toxins and microorganisms