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refers to grain in general. cereal grains are seeds from grass family Graminae. grains are world major food crops. corn, wheat, rice and barely together account for 95% of world's production of grains
cereals have been cultivated since >8000 yrs ago


protects grain from elements; usually not consumed ("fiber supplements")


14.5% - excellent source of fiber & minerals. removed from grains as they are processed into white flour


83% - basis for all flours; excellent source of complex carbs (starch)


2.5% - sold separately as "wheat germ". rich in fat, some incomplete protein, vitamins & minerals

nutrient content of grains: carbs

excellent source; may not be good fiber source, depends on processing

protein of grains

incomplete - low in essential amino acid lysine. has methionine which legumes don't - often paired w/ legumes

fat of grains

low in fat, contains no cholesterol

vitamins & minerals in grains

many lost during milling, so often enriched w/ thiamin (b1) riboflavin (b2) and niacin. often w/ iron too

fiber in grains

"whole grains" products are good source of soluble fiber, which has been shown to reduce high blood cholesterol and help stabilize high blood sugar. also good source of insoluble fiber, which may help reduce risk of color cancer. health-related benefits of fiber have resulted in many food companies touting products as being high in fiber

use of cereal grains

flour, pasta, breakfast cereal, alcoholic beverages, and animal feeds


*fine powder obtained from crushing endosperm of grain
*"whole-grain" flours have also bran and germ milled in. shelf life of these is shorter than pure white b/c of presence of germ (rich in fats, susceptible to spoilage)

extrusion of pasta & breakfast cereals

*raw materials are first ground to correct particle size (~flour)
*dry mix is passed through pre-conditioner, where other ingredients are added (liquid, sugar, fats, dyes... and water depending on product being made) steam also injected to start cooking process
-preconditioned mix is passed through extruder, forced through a die where it is cut to desired length. cooking process takes place w/in extruder where product produces its own friction and heat due to pressure generated

use of extrusion cooking process gives following food benefits:

starch gelatinization, protein denaturation, inactivation of raw food enzymes, destruction of naturally occurring toxins, diminishing of microorganisms in final product

types of cereal grains

wheat, rice, corn, other grains, refined & whole grains

uses of wheat

75% milled into flour
25 % cereals, pastas, animal feed, wheat germ, wheat germ oil

14 species of wheat

common, club and durum account almost 90% of all wheat ground in world

wheat classification

defined by growing season:
winter (hard) - durum - hardest & highest protein content, bread and pasta
spring (soft) - flour has lower protein content; cakes, cookies, cracker & pastries
defined by color: red, white, yellow, amber - once wheat is milled, all are white

forms of wheat

wheat berries - whole unprocessed kernels
bulgur - wheat berries that have been steamed, dried and crushed
cracked wheat - whole berry broken into coarse, medium and fine fragments
farina - "cream of wheat"
plus - rolled wheat, wheat germ and wheat bran

rice cultivation method classification

-lowland/wet/irrigated: accounts for 90% of all rice grown; roots submerged in water

rice grain length classification

-determined by length in relationship to width
-long, medium and short grain

rice texture classification

-long grain: drier, fluffier and grains separate when cooked (more amylose)
-medium & short grain: stickier when cooked (higher in amylopectin)

rice lengths: long, medium and short

long- 4x's longer than wide. drier, fluffier
medium - 2-3x's longer than wide. moist, tender & sticky
short - almost round. moist & sticky

white rice

milled and polished to remove husk, bran and germ. processing removes fiber, most B vitamins and iron; if enriched, the latter 2 are replaced

converted rice

long-grain rice that has been soaked, steamed under pressure, and dried before milling
-commonly used in food service b/c stays firm and separate

instant rice

rice that has been cooked and then rehydrated. takes only a few minutes to make. inferior texture - grains often split and become dry

brown rice

only hull removed; germ and bran remain intact - higher fiber. longer cooking time. tougher texture than white

glutinous rice

slightly sweeter, stickier and more translucent than regular rice. easily shaped and molded; preferred for rice dumplings and sushi

specialty rice

long-grain rices w/ nuttier taste and separate easily. ex: basmati, jasmine, texmati, and wehani

wild rice

NOT really nice. belongs to family of reed-like water plants called Zizania aquatica. harvested from areas in great lakes region and in canada, this "rice" has higher protein and B vitamin content than its psuedo-counterparts


classified by kernel type. forms: on the cob, kernel corn, hominy, corn/hominy grits, cornmeal, cornstarch, corn syrup, corn oil


(pearl - bran removed). malt, cereal, soups, livestock feed, beers & whiskey. chewy, nutty. Malt: germinated barley that has been gently dried to stop growth of germination roots while leaving intact enzymes that contribute to flavor and color


a type of cereal grain. in spreads, alcoholic beverages and livestock feeds, bread, cakes and gluten free!


type of cereal grain. in hot/cold cereals, breads, muffings, cookies, livestock feed. forms: oat groats, steel-cut oats, rolled oats, oat bran


type of cereal grain. in bread, crackers and whiskey. contains less protein (gluten) and starch than wheat.

other types of cereal grains

farro, millet, triticale, kamut

factors that influence amount of water, heat intensity and cooking time in prep of cereal grains

form of grain, presence of bran or hull, pH of water, desired tenderness

changes during heating of cereal grains

water softens outer covering and makes starchy endosperm digestible, starch gelatinizes - grain absorbs water, softens and expands - improving texture and flavor


most common prep method for grains like rice

sauteing/pilaf method

*useful for rice and bulgur
-Saute grain in fat
-Pour boiling chicken broth/other stock over grain and cover
-reduce heat and simmer until done


grains can be prepared in a casserole dish & baked in oven if enough liquid is provided. usually 20-30 min.

hot breakfast cereals

Sprinkle cereal slowly over boiling water while stirring OR mix cereal w/ cold water to make slurry before adding it to hot water. once cereal added, maintain slow boil & stir occasionally until grains are translucent
*most common: oatmeal, farina, hominy, cream of rice, bulgur
Forms: regular, quick-cooking, instant


semolina flour starch + water
*Semolina derived from durum wheat
-higher protein content = high quality pasta (gives pasta elasticity and helps maintain shape during cooking)
-higher carotenoid content (pigments) - contribute to pasta's rich, golden color (may come from egg yolks too, other common thing in pasta)
*most pastas made in US are enriched w/ several B vitamins and iron

types of pasta

lasagna, spaghetti, vermicelli, linguine, fettuccine, wagon wheels, bowlie, egg noodles, jumbo shells, elbow, shells, orzo, ziti

pasta nomenclature: noodles

contain eggs

pasta nomenclature: asian noodles

made from flours other than semolina or farina - don't contain eggs

pasta nomenclature: whole wheat

made from whole-wheat flour. tougher texture & stronger taste

pasta nomenclature: flavored

vegetable purees (spinach, tomato, or beet), herbs, and/or spices added. altered color and flavor

pasta nomenclature: fanciful

unusual shapes (ex: dinosaurs), appeal to children

pasta nomenclature: high-protein

contain soy flour, wheat germ, or dairy products yielding higher protein content

pasta nomenclature: fresh

higher moisture content, results in softer consistency and shorter cooking time

pasta nomenclature: couscous

"moroccan pasta" made from semolina that is cooked, dried and pulverized into small, rough pieces


most of the vitamin E in grains is found in what portion of the kernel


the endosperm of grains is primarily made up of

bulgur wheat

which type of wheat is typically used to make the lebanese dish called Tabouleh?


refined grains have 4 vitamins and one mineral added back to them after processing. what is the name of this process?


after wheat, the second most common grain used in bread making is ____


malt is made from germinated (sprouted) ____, so it serves as a source of gluten


what is the best wheat for producing cake flour


_______ is occurring when: starch granules are heated in water, hydrogen bonds within the starch weaken, and water penetrates the starch molecule causing translucency and viscosity

what does NOT take place during extrusion of cereals

activation of enzymes

what changes do take place during extrusion of cereals

starch gelatinization, protein denaturation, and destruction of some toxins and microorganisms

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