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hot, melted rock that flows onto Earth's surface through openings of a volcano


hot, melted rock inside the Earth

magma chamber

an underground pool that holds magma, below a volcano

tectonic plate

solid sections of rock that float and are constantly moving on Earth's molten mantle

Ring of Fire

A giant ring of volcanoes that surrounds the Pacific Plate


The sliding of one plate under another


a scientific instrument that detects movement or vibrations in the earth's crust

dormant volcano

a volcano that has erupted in historical times, but is now quiet

active volcano

a volcano that is either currently erupting or may soon erupt

violent eruption

a volcano where pressure builds up and explodes with incredible force


a plant or animal that has lived through a disaster in a particular area


living things that come into an area to eat and to live after a disaster


pushing force


a crack in the mountain of a volcano


a crack in the earth's crust where rocks on one side can move in relation to rock on the other side


the point on earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake

shield volcano

a wide, gently sloping, dome-shaped mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions

cinder cone volcano

a steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain made of volcanic ash and cinders piled up around a volcano's opening

composite volcano

these tall volcanoes may erupt on and off for as long as a million years, a tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials

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