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Chapter 11 SS

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William H. Crawford
presidential candidate in 1824, (Republican) wanted limited federal government and strong state powers
Henry Clay
presidential candidate in 1824, wanted high tariffs and a stronger national bank
Andrew Jackson
presidential candidate in 1824, spoke for Americans who had been left out of politics
John Quincy Adams
presidential candidate in 1824, believed that federal government should help the nation switch to and economy based on manufacturing
majority
more than half
plurality
largest single share
corrupt bargain
Henry Clay and Adams working together to convince the House to vote for Adams
Democratic-Republicans
supported Jackson and states' rights
National Republicans
supported Adams and a strong central government
mudslinging
attempts to ruin their opponent's reputation with insults
bureaucracy
nonelected officials carry out laws
spoils system
replacing government employees with supporters
caucus
system where major political candidates were chosen by committees made up of members of Congress
nominating conventions
state delegates choose the party's candidate
tariff
fee paid by merchants who imported goods
nullify
cancel a federal law the state considered unconstitutional
secede
break away from the Union
Trail of Tears
the Cherokee's forced journey west
guerilla
surprise attacks
Black Hawk
led a force of Sauk and Fox back to Illinois, however most were killed by state militia
Seminole
only Native Americans that successfully blocked their removal
Osceola
chief of the Seminole who went to war against the US
laissez-faire
principle that government should interfere as little as possible in the nation's economy
Nicholas Biddle
president of the Bank of the United States
James Polk
beat Henry Clay for the presidency in 1844
Tariff of Abominations
the Southerners' name for the high tariff on imports from Europe
Nullification Act
passed by the South Carolina state legislature saying it would not pay "illegal" tariffs and threatened to secede from the Union
Indian Removal Act
allowed the federal government to pay Native Americans to move west
Whigs
new political party that participated in the election of 1836
Panic of 1837
land values fell, investments declined, banks failed, people lost confidence in the economic system
William Henry Harrison
elected president, but died of pneumonia four weeks after his inauguration in 1941
John Tyler
William Henry Harrison's running mate, first VP to become president, once a Democrat
General Winfield Scott
took his army to Georgia to remove the Cherokee and lead them west