30 terms

Sociology Test 1A

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Sociology
a science which aims at the interpretive understanding of social behavior in order to gain an explanation of its causes, course, and its effects
A sociologist's line of questioning
Factual question: what happened?; Comparative question: did this happen everywhere?; Developmental question: has this happened over time?; Theoretical question: why does this occur?
Microsociological
sociological analysis. concerned with the study of everyday behavior in situations of face-to-face interaction
Macrosociological
sociological analysis. concerned with the analysis of large-scale social systems, like the political system or the economic order
science
the use of systematic methods of empirical investigation, the analysis of data, theoretical thinking, and the logical assessment of arguments to develop a body of knowledge about a particular subject matter
second-order desires
the ability to reflect upon and evaluate our own evaluations
common errors in scientific inquiry
inaccurate observations, selective observation, overgeneralization
traditional scientific method
theory, operationalization, observation and analysis
hypothesis
a SPECIFIED TESTABLE expectation about empirical reality that follows from a more general proposition or research question
surveys
surveys: type of research
interviews
a setting for purposeful interaction in which the interviewer has a general plan of inquiry and intends to discuss topics in depth with the interviewee
focus group
a group of subjects interviewed together, prompting a discussion
Ethnography
a study that focuses on detailed and accurate description rather than explanation
values
principles or ideals concerning what is intrinsically desirable
norms
expectations or rules of behavior that develop from a group's values
culture
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next
subculture
a world (or culture) within the larger world of the dominant culture
counterculture
occur where a group's values and norms place it at distinct odds with the dominant culture
stratification
the hierarchical arrangement of social classes and strata within a society or social group
homophily
the tendency of individuals to associate and bond with similar others
social structure
enduring patterns of norms, cognitive frameworks, behaviors, and relationships within social systems such that these constrain the behavior of actors within those social systems
macrostructure
a 'second level' structure, a pattern of relations between objects that have their own structure
microstructure
the pattern of relations between the most basic elements of social life (such as human interaction)
socialization
the process of learning norms, values, and behavior patterns transmitted by social groups
cognitive structure
conceptual dimensions on which we scale our experience; they allow us to compare one experience with another
resocialization
learning norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors to match a new situation in life
Piaget's terms
assimilation and accommodation
assimilation
fitting new experiences into existing cognitive structures
accommodation
changing existing cognitive structures to fit new experiences
moral socialization
while all children are born with some capacity to care about other people, the trait takes a whole to mature