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The land animals that evolved from earlier froms had to change their mechanisms for excreting nitrogenous wastes because?

Land animals had a more difficult difficult time with water balance than aquatic species since water was not always available on land

Natural selection is nature's mechanism for selecting characteristics that best adapt the animal to its environment. Mammals have evolved a sophisticated mechanism for eliminating nitrogenous wastes that involves?

forming urea and storing it in concentrated solution

Birds, like other animals eliminate ammonia or urea, and do so by converting them to?

Uric Acid

Which of the following statements about uric is true?

Animals that excrete uric acid avoid the problem of water loss associated with excretion of urea

Which of the following is a function of the vertebrate liver?

Combining ammonia and carbon dioxide to form urea

Which of the following is a function of the excretory system?

Maintenance of water balance

What is the name of the functional unit of the kidney?


Through which of the following structures does urine leave the bladder?


What is the advantage of excreting nitrogenous waste in the form of ammonia?

Ammonia excretion conserves energy

The reason animals need a continous supply of oxygen is to?

Obtain energy from their food

A waste product of respiration is?

Carbon dioxide

When you exhale, you?

Remove CO2 from the body

During gas exchange, body cells?

Release CO2 and take up O2

The body structure where gas exchange occurs is called the?

Respiratory surface

Animals that effectively use their body surface for gas exchange must?

Have a high ratio of the body surface are to volume

Which of the following organisms has a respirtory system that does not require assistance from a circulatory system for gas exchange?


Which of the following is likely to have the lowest concentration of O2?

Warm Salt Water

The organizationof the bloood and water flow in a fish's gills increases that fish's ability to?

Extract oxygen from the water

Which of the following statements about fish gills is true?

They have a surface area that is much greater than the body surface

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