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AP Human Geography Unit 7
Unit 7 Terms. Eric Welter's AP Human Geography Class 2014-2015
Terms in this set (78)
The spatial grouping of people or activities for mutual benefit.
Squatter settlements found in the periphery of Latin American cities. Ex. Shelters
Those products or services of an urban economy that are exported outside the city itself, earning income for the community.
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood. Ex. 1950s
CBD (Central Business District)
The nucleus or "downtown" of a city, where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated, mass transit systems converge, and land values and building densities are high. Ex. Skyscrapers
Small country subdivisions delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
A deductive theory formulated by Walter Christaller to explain the size and distribution of settlements through reference to competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed rural populations.
German geographer credited with developing central place theory.
A multifunctional nucleated settlement with a central business district and both residential and nonresidential land uses.
A city that was deliberately established or developed as an administrative or commercial center by colonial or imperial powers. Ex. United States
The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity. Ex. Ft. Lauderdale
The outer most zone of the Concentric Zone Model that represents people who choose to live in residential suburbia and take a daily commute in the CBD to work. Ex: Emigrants
Concentric Zone Model
A model describing urban land uses as a series of circular belts or rings around a core central business district, each ring housing a distinct type of land use.
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries. Ex: Immigration
Degree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy. Ex: Europe
The cumulative and sustained decline in the contribution of manufacturing to a national economy.
Cities of the ancient world. Ex: 3500-1200BC
Economic Base (Basic/Nonbasic)
The manufacturing and service activities performed by the basic sector of a city's labor force; functions of a city performed to satisfy demands external to the city itself and, in that performance, earning income to support the urban population.
Distinct sizable nodal concentration of retail and office space of lower than central city densities and situated on the outer fringes of older metropolitan areas; usually localized by or near major highway intersections.
A city currently without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate.
An area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background.
A restricted access subdivision or neighborhood, often surrounded by a barrier, with entry permitted only for residents and their guests; usually totally planned in land use and design, with "residents only" limitations on public streets and parks.
The movement into the inner portions of American cities of middle and upper income people who replace low income populations, rehabilitate the structures they occupied, and change the social character of neighborhoods.
A forced or voluntarily segregated residential area housing a racial, ethnic, religious minority.
A reference to the increasing interconnection of all parts of the world.
An area along a limited-access highway that houses offices and other services associated with high-tech industries. Ex: Silicon Valley
The market area or region served by an urban center.
A center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country. Ex: CBD
Building on empty parcels of land within a checkerboard pattern of development. Ex: Vacancy
That part of a national economy that involves productive labor not subject to formal systems of control or payment. Money that isn't regulated by the government; drug money, money from chores and odd jobs.
The basic structure of services, installations, and facilities needed to support industrial, agricultural, and other economic development.
The older, central part of a city with crowded neighborhoods in which low-income live. Ex: North America
Invasion and Succession
Process by which new immigrants to a city move to and dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups. Ex: Puerto Ricans
Commuting that occurs between suburban areas rather than towards the central city. Ex: Home to work
Cities that developed in Europe during the Medieval Period and that contain unique features such as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that marks the city center, and high walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack.
Cities with over 10 million people in population. Ex: New York City
A large, sprawled urban complex with contained open, nonurban land, created through the spread and joining of separate metropolitan areas. When capitalized it refers to the coastal northeastern United States from Maine to Virginia.
In the United States, a large functionally integrated settlement area comprising one or more whole county units and usually containing several urbanized areas.
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
The direct, indirect, and induced consequences of change in an activity.
The area or region around or near some place or thing.
Two or more nearby cities, potentially or actually complementary in function, that cooperate by developing transportation links and communications infrastructure joining them.
A sector in which workers are responsible for the functioning of the city itself.
Any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area.
A stage of economic development in which service activities become relatively more important than goods production.
A country's leading city, disproportionately large and functionally more complex than any other; a city dominating an urban hierarchy composed.
Refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race.
An observed regularity in the city-size distribution of some countries. In a rank-size hierarchy, the population of any given town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy; that is the nth-ranked city will be 1/nth the size of the largest city.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within boundaries.
Provision in a property deed preventing sale to a person of a particular race or religion; loan discrimination; ruled unconstitutional.
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
A measure of the degree to which member of a minority group are not uniformly distributed among the total population.
Settlement Form (Nucleated, Dispersed, Elongated)
Nucleated: a compact, closely packed settlement sharply decorated from adjoining farmlands; Dispersed: characterized by a much lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads; Elongated: a state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
A heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor.
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
A functionally specialized segment of a large urban complex located outside the boundaries of the central city; usually, a relatively homogeneous residential community, separately incorporated and administered.
A term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities.
Landscape that depicts symbols.
An apartment building, especially one meeting minimum standards of sanitation, safety or maintenance up keep.
In economic geography and central place theory, the minimum market needed to support the supply of a product or service.
A nucleated settlement that contains a central business district but that is small and less functionally complex than a city.
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Employed at a job that does not fully use one's skills or abilities.
Services that are provided in a certain urban area.
Urban Growth Rate
The rate at which an urban area grows.
Significance: It lets geographers know the fastest growing urban areas and analyze their growth.
Urban Hearth Area
An area, like Mesopotamia or the Nile Valley, where large cities first existed.
Urban Heat Island
A metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas.
A ranking of cities based on their size and functional complexity.
Study of water in Urban areas and how to treat it.
The study of the physical form and structure of urban places.
Urban Influence Zone
An area outside of a city that is nevertheless affected by the city.
A continuously built-up urban landscape defined by building and population densities with no reference to the political boundaries of the city.
Population that lives in Urban areas. (Cities)
Transformation of a population from rural to urban status; the process of city formation and expansion.
One of a small number of interconnected, internationally dominant centers that together control the global systems of finance and commerce. Ex. New York, London, Tokyo
Zone in Transition
Area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD; mixture of growth, change, and decline.
Designating by ordinance areas in a municipality for particular types of land use.
Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas.
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