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22 terms

AP Human Geography Chapter 12

STUDY
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basic industries
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
business services
services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
central business district (CBD)
the area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered
central place
a market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
central place theory
a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
city-state
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
clustered rural settlement
a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
consumer services
businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services
dispersed rural settlement
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
economic base
a community's collection of basic industries
enclosure movement
the process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century
gravity model
a model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
market area/hinterland
the area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
nonbasic industries
industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
primate city
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
primate city rule
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
public services
services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
range (of a service)
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
rank-size rule
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
service
an activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
settlement
a permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work, and obtain services
threshold
the minimum number of people needed to support the service