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basic industries

Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement

business services

services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses

central business district (CBD)

the area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered

central place

a market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area

central place theory

a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther


a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland

clustered rural settlement

a rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement

consumer services

businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services

dispersed rural settlement

a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages

economic base

a community's collection of basic industries

enclosure movement

the process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century

gravity model

a model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service

market area/hinterland

the area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services

nonbasic industries

industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community

primate city

the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement

primate city rule

a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement

public services

services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses

range (of a service)

the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service

rank-size rule

a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement


an activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it


a permanent collection of buildings where people reside, work, and obtain services


the minimum number of people needed to support the service

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