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core knowledge

theory that basic areas of knowledge are innate

contact vs no contact

support relations @ 3 mo

type of contact

support relations @ 5 mo

amount of contact

support relations @ 6.5 mo

shape of box

support relations @ 12.5 mo

6 mo

understanding intention; tennis ball vs bear

12-15 mo

attribute intentions and goals if things act human

sociocultural theories

children acquire knowledge through collaborative dialogue, adults model


researcher who believe children are social beings with thought as internalized speech

information processing theory

continuous development, attention/memory/exec function

executive function

ability to coordinate attention and memory, control behavior


improvement of exec function at age...


ability to stay on task & ignore distraction

cognitive flexibility

switch focus as needed


age at which basic structure of language is mastered

semantic dev

begins with morphemes

syntactic dev

order of words

pragmatic dev


Broca's area

brain area for expressive speech


brain area for meaning/reception

6-10 months

babbling age (vowel + consonate sounds)

10-15 months

age of first words


one word utterances


use word in broader context

fast mapping

derive meaning from hearing word once

whole object assumption

expect novel word to refer to whole object

taxonomic constraints

two objects with features in common have common name, but each object also needs individual name

pragmatic cues

novel word applies to novel object

syntactic bootstrapping

use grammatical structure of whole sentences to figure out meaning


telegraphic speech (two word utterances) age


multiword sentences

social cognition learning theory

learn language through imitation & operant conditioning shapes language


universal grammar-- hardwired but activated by hearing language

cognitive processing theory

theory that language learning=data crunching

primary emotions

anger sadness joy surprise fear interest disgust contentment

interest disgust contempt

birth-2 mo emotions

sadness anger joy fear surprise

2-7 mo emotions

6-7 weeks

social smiling

2-3 mo


15-24 mo

embarrassment age

3 years

pride/shame age

secondary emotions

guilt shame embarrassment pride

emotional regulation

infantas turn away, self sooth, avert gaze @ 6 mo

3-5 years

age at which kids understand happy/sad events

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