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Professor Hardwick is interested in the strong affectionate tie children have with special people in their lives that lead to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress. Professor Hardwick studies


According to Bowlby, during the attachment -in-the-making phase, babies

respond in the same way to all gentle, caring adults.

Three-year old Carlisle knows that his mother will pick up from preschool after snack and seeks her comfort whenever he is in an unfamiliar or stressful situation. These examples show that carlisle has developed

An internal working model

In the Strange Situation, Philip seeks closeness to his mother and fails to explore. When his mother leaves, philip is distressed,and on her return he hits her. Philip is displaying characteristics of _________attachment.


Carmen adopted her son just after his second birthday. What can you tell Carmen about the opportunity for attachment?

The first attachment bond can develop as late as 4 to 6 years of age.

Interactional synchrony is

best described as a sensitively tuned "emotional dance."

Parents who discuss their childhoods with objectivity and balance, regardless of whether their experiences were positive or negative, tend to have __________ infants.

securely attached

Veronica has the ability to understand her friends' emotional state and respond emotionally in a similar way. Veronica is displaying


EEG and fMRI measures of neural activity in various cortical regions reveal

especially rapid growth from early to middle childhood in the frontal lobe.

_______ may profoundly affect handedness.

Typical right-facing fetal orientation

Juan, who suffers from extreme emotional deprivation, is very short in stature, and has decreased GH secretion, an immature skeletal age, and serious adjustment problems. He most likely has

psychosocial dwarfism.

According to Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is


Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates that preoperational children's thinking is characterized by __________ in that they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.


In Paul's preschool classroom, children are encouraged to choose activities from a rich variety of materials designed to promote exploration. This preschool emphasizes the Piagetian principle of

discovery learning.

A major reason that sustained attention improves in the preschool years is

that children begin to distinguish appearance from reality.

For Erikson, the negative outcome of early childhood is an overly strict ________ that causes children to feel too much _________ because they have been threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults.

superego; guilt

The stronger children's self-definition is, the more ________ they tend to be.


During the preschool years, high self-esteem

greatly contributes to children's initiative during a period in which they must master many new skills.

Which of the following is supported by research on emotional understanding?

Preschoolers whose parents negotiate during conflicts with them show delayed emotional understanding.

An important motivator of prosocial behavior is


When parents have an angry and punitive style, their children

are often less equipped to show sympathy for others.

Candace and Christina sit side by side playing with their dolls. They do not talk or try to influence each other. They are engaging in _______ play.


Four- to 7-year-olds regard friendship as

pleasurable play and sharing of toys

Most theories of moral development agree that at first, a child's morality is

externally controlled by adults.

Research reveals that inductive discipline

helps children notice others' feelings and points out the effects of children's misbehavior on others

Warmth and responsiveness, competence and power, and consistency between assertions and behavior are all characteristics

that increase a child's willingness to imitate a model's behavior.

Frequent punishment

romotes immediate compliance, but not lasting changes in behavior.

Marlena teases Jessica by calling her a "do-do head." This is an example of ________ aggression.


Reviewers of thousands of studies have concluded that TV violence

increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and aggressive behaviors in viewers.

During early childhood, children's gender-stereotyped beliefs

strengthen so much that many children apply them as blanket rules that should not be violated.

Research on gender identity demonstrates that

"masculine" and androgynous children have a higher self-esteem than those with a "feminine" identity.

Authoritarian parents

are emotionally detached and withdrawn.

Which of the following is true about the permissive child-rearing style?

Instead of gradually granting autonomy, permissive parents allow children to make many of their own
decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so.

Which of the following is true about the authoritative child-rearing style?

Authoritative parents exert control, yell, command, criticize, and threaten their children

__________ commit the vast majority of child abuse incidents.


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