546 terms

Laboratory Exercises for Competency in Respiratory Care Glossary

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Abduction
movement away from the axis of the body
abruptio placentae
sudden separation of the placenta from the uterine wall
accuracy
the correct value; errorless
acid
a substance that yields hydrogen ions or protons to another substance
acidosis
an abnormal state of increased hydrogen ion in the blood
acrocyanosis
symmetric mottled cyanosis of hands and feet
actuator
a device to initiate an action or process
acute
sudden onset, short course, severe
additive
two drugs in combination; effects equal the algebraic sum of each contribution
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
adenopathy
any enlargement of a gland, especially lymphatic tissue
adhesion
the molecular force exerted between two surfaces in contact
adjunctive
assisting or aiding; auxiliary
adrenergic
stimulating epinephrine receptors (sympathomimetic)
adventitious
foreign, acquired; occurring in unusual or abnormal places
adverse
unfavorable or bringing harm
aerobe
organisms requiring oxygen for metabolism
aerosol
liquid or dry particles suspended in gas
AFB
acid-fast bacillus; a bacterium that accepts a carbol-fuschin stain, and, after an application of an acid alcohol, a counter stain of methylene blue; also known as the Ziehl-Neelsen test; an example of an acid-fast organism is mycobacterium tuberculosis
affinity
having attraction to
agonist
having affinity and efficacy; producing the desired affect
air bronchogram
the outline of an airway as seen on a chest x-ray; the air-fi lled tube is outlined against the consolidated lung parenchyma; seen chiefly in pneumonia
airway resistance
the resistance to airflow as a result of the narrowing of an airway
algorithm
A step-by-step process by which a procedure should be performed.
alkalosis
an abnormal state characterized by a decrease in blood hydrogen levels
alleviating
relieving; used to describe conditions that might relieve a symptom
ambient
atmospheric; surrounding
ambulatory
able to walk; not confined to bed rest
American Standard Safety System (ASSS)
the connection between the outlet of a large medical gas cylinder and the pressure-reducing valve
amniotic fluid
the fluid in the sac surrounding the developing embryo
amplitude
fullness, breadth, range, or extent
anaerobe
organism that does not use oxygen for metabolism
anaphylaxis
severe allergic hypersensitivity; may result in shock, airway obstruction
anastomosis
intercommunication (natural or surgical) of blood vessels or other hollow organs or parts
anatomic dead space
part of the tracheobronchial tree where there is ventilation without perfusion; the entire conducting airway
anemia
deficiency or decrease in amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin
aneroid
mechanical gauge, working without a fluid
anesthesia
loss of feeling or sensation
angiocath
short for angiocatheter; it is the catheter inserted into a vein to gain intravenous access
anhydrous
without water; dry
anion
negatively charged atom
anomaly
any deviation from what is regarded as normal
anoxia
without oxygen; antiquated term for hypoxia
antagonist
a drug having affi nity but no effi cacy; blocks, inhibits, or reverses effect
antecubital (fossa)
the triangular area in the bend of the elbow
anterior
the front of a structure
anticholinergic
synonym for parasympatholytic
anticoagulant
a substance, such as heparin or warfarin, used to increase the clotting time of blood
antihistamine
an agent that counteracts the effect of histamine, a chemical agent believed to cause hypersensitive or allergic symptoms
antiseptic
a chemical agent that interferes with infectious potential; usually applied to the human body
antitussive
a cough suppressant
Apgar score
an evaluation of an infant's physical condition; usually performed at 1 minute and again 5 minutes after birth
apical
pertaining to the pointed part of an organ (apex)
apices
the uppermost portions of an organ, as in the apices of the lungs; singular is apex
apnea
the cessation of breathing
arrhythmia
an abnormal heartbeat pattern on ECG
arteriosclerosis
the hardening of the arteries; loss of elasticity of the artery walls
artifact
an artificial or extraneous characteristic introduced by accident
artificial intelligence system
A computer system able to analyze, problem solve, and make decisions similar to the human brain
asepsis
the exclusion of pathogenic microorganisms
aseptic
free from infection or infectious matter
aspiration
the act of sucking up or sucking in, such as inhaling a foreign body or vomitus; withdrawing fluids from a body cavity (e.g., suctioning)
assisted breath
a ventilator delivered breath at the set tidal volume given in response to an inspiratory effort
asterixis
a tremor characterized by the flapping of the hand; usually seen in liver disease
asymmetrical
a lack of similarity or correspondence of parts on each side of an organism
asynchrony
not occurring simultaneously. Used to describe when a patient is not breathing with the ventilator.
ataxia
the uncoordination of voluntary muscular action, particularly related to walking or reaching
atelectasis
the collapse of the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs)
atherosclerosis
the buildup of fatty deposits or plaque within a vessel
atmospheric temperature and pressure, saturated (ATPS)
the condition of exhaled air once breathed into a measuring device
atomizer
hand bulb device to produce large-particle spray
atopic
a hereditary allergic state
atrium
the upper chamber; connected to several other chambers or passageways
atrophy
the wasting away of an organ (e.g., muscle)
augment
to exacerbate or increase; supplement
auscultation
listening for sounds produced in the body
autoclave
a device utilizing increased pressure and temperature in order to achieve sterilization
autofluorescence
the ability of a structure to emit light
auxiliary
functioning as secondary, supplemental
bacteremia
the presence of bacteria in the blood
bactericidal
an agent that kills or destroys bacteria
bacteriostatic
an agent that prevents growth and development of bacteria
baffle
a surface in a nebulizer designed to impact large aerosol particles and reduce their size
barotrauma
a physical injury sustained as a result of exposure to ambient pressures above normal
base
alkaline, yields hydroxyl ions; combines with acid to form salt
basilar
pertaining to the bases or widest part of pyramid-shaped organ agonist: a drug that activates the beta sympathetic receptors (lungs, cardiac)
bevel
an angled tip
bifurcation
division into two branches
bilateral
on two sides
binaural
relating to both ears
biohazard
anything that poses a risk to a living organism such as infected bodily fluids or infectious agents
biohazard containers
special containers used for the disposal of equipment or supplies that are contaminated with biohazardous materials
Biot's respiration
an irregular, chaotic breathing pattern with periods of apnea associated with certain diseases
BiPAPTM unit
a machine used to deliver bilevel positive airway pressure
bite block
an instrument inserted into the mouth used to prevent the patient from biting down on the tongue or an artificial airway
blanching
loss of color; becoming pale
bland
gentle, not irritating or stimulating; mild or soothing
bleb
blister; air cyst adjacent to the pleura
body surface area (BSA)
a mathematical calculation of the total physical volume the body comprises in space
body temperature and pressure, saturated (BTPS)
the condition of air in the lungs
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid turns to a gaseous form
bradycardia
a slow heart rate less than 60 bpm in an adult
breech
fetus positioned feet down
bronchoactive
any drug affecting the tracheobronchial tree
bronchoconstriction
narrowing or spasm of the smooth bronchial muscle lining the airways
bronchodilation
widening or relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle
bronchophony
an increase in transmitted sound in the lung due to increased density of lung tissue such as consolidation
bronchorrhea
excess mucus production from the lung
bronchoscope
a device, either rigid or flexible fi ber optic, inserted into the tracheobronchial tree used to visualize the airways and to obtain tissue, mucus, or cell-washing samples for biopsy or other laboratory testing
bronchoscopy (AFB)
a medical procedure in which an instrument called a bronchoscope is introduced into the tracheobronchial tree in order to visualize the airways, obtain tissue samples (biopsy), or to aspirate secretions and alleviate a blocked airway
bronchospasm
same as bronchoconstriction
buffer
substance that prevents extreme swings in pH
bulla
thin-walled, air-fi lled area surrounded by normal tissue more than 1 cm in diameter
cachectic
characterized by severe generalized weakness, malnutrition, emaciation; wasted appearance with poor skin turgor
cachexia
condition of general ill health and malnutrition characterized by weakness and emaciation
calibration
determining the accuracy of an instrument
calorie
a heat energy unit; the quantity of heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1 centigrade
capnography
measuring and recording a graphic display of exhaled carbon dioxide as a waveform
capnometer
a device used to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in exhaled air
capnometry
the numerical measurement of exhaled carbon dioxide pressure
cardiac index
a standardized measure of cardiac performance; the volume per minute of cardiac output per square meter of body surface area; the normal resting average is 2.2 L
cardiac output
the total amount of blood pumped per minute; heart rate multiplied by stroke volume
cardiomegaly
an enlarged heart
cardioversion
the application of direct current (at a lower wattage than defibrillation) to reverse abnormal rhythm (usually PAT) and resume normal sinus rhythm
caseation (caseous)
a collection of cheeselike material from coagulation necrosis of tissue, especially in tuberculosis
catecholamine
natural or synthetic chemicals similar in structure to epinephrine and norepinephrine
catheter
a hollow tubular instrument for the passage of fluid from or into a body cavity
cation
a positive ion
caudad
toward the tail
cell mediated
physiological mechanisms occurring by way of specific cells (as opposed to neurological or humoral)
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
the federal agency that administers Medicare and Medicaid including children's services
central venous pressure
the measurement of the blood pressure representing the filling pressure of the right atrium
cephalad
toward the head
Certificate of Medical Necessity (CMN)
documentation required by insurance companies (specifically Medicare) attesting to the medical need of a particular piece of equipment or treatment modality such as oxygen therapy
cesarean
a surgical procedure through an abdominal wall incision for delivery of a fetus
chest wiggle
the shaking of the chest as observed during high frequency ventilation in neonates; this observation is one of the criteria used to assess the adequacy of high-frequency ventilation
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
a regularly irregular increase and decrease in depth of breathing with periods of apnea
choanalatresia
the abnormal closure of the normal opening of the posterior nares; failure to develop in utero
cholinergic
produces the effect of acetylcholine (parasympathomimetic)
chorionic villi
numerous branching projections from the surface of the outermost layer of the fetal membranes
chronic
persisting for a long time; slow progression
chronotropic
affecting time or rate
chylothorax
the presence of milky lymph fluid in the pleural space
circumoral
occurring around or surrounding the lips
closed-loop control
A self-adjusting control system.
clubbing
a painless enlargement of the distal phalanges associated with chronic hypoxia
coagulation
blood clotting
coagulopathy
an abnormal clotting of the blood
cold stress
the phenomenon of increased oxygen consumption when exposing the face of a newborn to cold air
collateral
accessory or secondary
collection chamber
a section of a chest drainage system that collects the pleural fluid
colloid
homogeneous material of gluelike consistency; aggregate of molecules evenly dispersed in solution resisting sedimentation; cannot pass through a semipermeable membrane
colonization
organisms growing in a host where they are not normally found without invasion of tissue or toxic effects; contamination
colorimetric
relating to a procedure for quantitative chemical analysis based on a comparison of color to a standard
combustible
rapid oxidation of substance accompanied by the production of heat and light; burning
commensalism
relationship in which an organism uses the host without harm or benefit; always capable of being potential pathogens
communication
the meaningful exchange of information
compensation
counterbalancing
compensatory
counterbalancing a lack or defect in body physiological function
compliance
volume/unit pressure; ability to expand
compressibility factor
a numeric constant for any given ventilator and circuit representing the amount of gas that will be lost in the circuit due to pressure increasing the density of the gas
compressible volume
the amount of gas that will be lost in the circuit due to pressure increasing the density of the gas
computer-directed weaning
weaning from mechanical ventilation based on computer analysis of patient data
condensate
changing of gas to liquid
consolidation
becoming solid; airless lung tissue
continuous mandatory ventilation
a ventilator mode in which the ventilator delivers a set tidal volume or minute ventilation at a determined respiratory rate
continuous spontaneous ventilation
patient breathing independent from the ventilator
contraindication
any treatment that is inadvisable or improper; a treatment that should not be done
contralateral
on the opposite side
copious
a large amount
costophrenic
the angle between the rib cage and diaphragm
couplant
the lower chamber of an ultrasonic nebulizer; the upper chamber contains the medication solution separated from the couplant by a diaphragm; the couplant contains fluid to transmit the piezoelectric vibrations to the diaphragm
CPAP unit
a device that delivers continuous positive airway pressure
crackles (coarse)
a harsh, discontinuous adventitious sound heard during auscultation caused by fluid or mucus in the larger airways; the obsolete term is rale
crackles (fine)
a discontinuous adventitious sound heard during auscultation caused by fluid in the smaller airways; the obsolete term is rale
crepitation
a crackling noise or sensation
crepitus
a crackling noise or sensation
critical pressure
the pressure exerted by a gas in an evacuated container at its critical temperature
critical temperature
the highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid regardless of pressure
crystalloid
a substance that, when in solution, can pass through a semipermeable membrane
cuirass
breastplate or chest piece of a negative pressure ventilator
cultural diversity
the vast array of behaviors, including health care, attributed to the different peoples and cultures found in society
cumulation
an increasing amount in the body when the rate of removal or inactivation is slower than the rate of administration
cyanosis
a bluish color of the skin and mucous membranes associated with hypoxia; requires 5 g of deoxygenated hemoglobin
dead space
ventilation without or in excess of perfusion; highventilationperfusion (V/Q) relationship; rebreathed air
debilitated
a weakened condition
decannulation
the removal of a tracheostomy tube
decongestant
an agent that reduces swelling or edema of mucous membranes
decontamination
the initial cleaning of an object or person to make it safe to handle by unprotected personnel
decubitus (position)
horizontal posture
decubitus (ulcer)
an ulcer caused by prolonged unrelieved pressure on a bony prominence
defibrillation
an electric shock applied to the heart to reverse fibrillation and resume a normal rhythm
dehydration
the removal or deprivation of water
demographics
statistical study of groups of people
density
mass per unit volume; closeness or compactness
denudation
the act of stripping or laying bare; remove covering
depolarization
the reduction of ion distribution differentials across a polarized semipermeable membrane usually resulting in nerve conduction or muscle contraction
deposition
the collection of matter in any part
desiccation
depriving a substance of moisture; to dry out
diagnosis
the art of determining the nature of a patient's disease; a conclusion reached
lancet
small, pointed, two-edged surgical puncturing device
lanugo
soft, fluffy hair on a fetus
laryngospasm
constriction of the laryngeal muscles
latent
not manifest; dormant; potential
lateral
pertaining to the side or away from the midline
latex
sap produced in certain plants used to make rubber
lavage
washing out of an organ or cavity as in the lungs, stomach, intestines
lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio
test compares the measurement of the two substances to determine fetal lung maturity
lesion
a broad term indicating any injury or loss of function to body tissue
lethargic
sleepy
leukotriene
a chemical mediator of immediate inflammation
lobe
a distinct division or portion of an organ
lobule
a smaller division of an organ or subdivision of a lobe
logarithm
the exponent value indicating the power to which a fixed number must be raised
loops
a system in which data is used to determine needed changes. They may be open or closed
lordosis
the forward curvature of the spine
lordotic
positioned with the spine curved forward
lubricant
a substance used to make a surface slippery, thus reducing friction; water-soluble lubricants are used in medicine to ease insertion of a device, thereby reducing trauma to mucous membranes due to friction; this is best exhibited by the application of a water-soluble lubricant as in orotracheal intubation
Luer-LokTM
a locking mechanism to secure a syringe in place, usually by twisting
lumen
the channel within a tube
lymphadenopathy
disease and enlargement of lymph nodes
lymphedema
the accumulation of lymphatic fluid in soft issues resulting in swelling
malacia
an abnormal softening
malaise
a generalized feeling of illness or discomfort
Mallampati classification
a rating system based on the anatomy and soft tissue appearance of the oropharynx; it is used to evaluate the difficulty of orotracheal intubation
mandatory breath
a required ventilator delivered breath that
mandible
the lower jaw
meatus
an opening or tunnel through a body part
mechanical dead space
an artificial adjunct or extension to the conducting airway where ventilation exists without perfusion and gas exchange
meconium
first fetal fecal matter
medial
pertaining to the midline
melting point
temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
metabolism
the sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism
metabolite
any product of metabolism
metastasis
the process of tumor cells spreading to distant parts of the body
miliary
lesions resembling millet seeds as in tuberculosis
monitoring
the continuous observation or collection of data
morbidity
the state of being ill
Moro reflex
a normal reflex in an infant elicited by a sudden loud noise
morphology
the study of the shape and structure of organisms
mortality
the number of deaths per unit population in a specific group
MSDS sheet
Manufacturer's Safety Data Sheet; this sheet contains all of the safety information regarding a chemical, including exposure and toxicity information
mucoid
resembling mucus; clear white secretions
mucokinetic
the movement of mucus
mucolytic
the breaking down of mucus
mucopurulent
containing mucus and pus
multifocal
originating from multiple points
muscarinic
the stimulation of parasympathetic neuroeffector sites; includes increased mucous and salivary gland discharge, decreased heart rate, vasodilation, hypotension
mutualism
a mutually beneficial relationship
mycology
the study of fungi
myelitis
the inflammation of the spinal cord with associated motor or sensory dysfunction
myocardial infarction
a blockage of a coronary blood vessel leading to death of heart muscle; heart attack
myopathy
disease of muscle
naris
the opening to the nose; the nostril; plural is nares
nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP)
continuous positive airway pressure applied to the nose
nasal mask
a noninvasive ventilation interface that covers only the nose
nasal pillows
a noninvasive ventilation interface that has two prongs that fit into the nostrils
nebulizer
a device that produces aerosol (fi ne spray or mist) powered by an external gas source (air or oxygen)
necrosis
the death of cell or tissue
needle
a pointed sharp implement used for injection or the puncture of an anatomical structure such as an artery or vein
neonate
a newborn infant
neoplasm
the new growth of abnormal tissue
neutral thermal environment
an environment created to maintain the normal body temperature of an infant to minimize oxygen consumption and caloric expenditure
nicotinic
the stimulation of acetylcholine ganglionic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) sites and skeletal muscle receptors; produces increased blood pressure, vasoconstriction, heart rate
nodule
a small, round mass or lesion
nomogram
the graphic representation of normal values
noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV)
mechanical ventilation not requiring intubation or tracheostomy
nosocomial
hospital acquired; an infection that develops in the hospital
obligate
able to live only in the way specified
obtunded
insensitive to pain or other stimuli due to a decreased level of consciousness
obturator
a removable device used to plug a tube during insertion
oligohydramnios
an abnormally small amount of amniotic fluid
opacification
less able to transmit light; increased density on x-ray
opportunistic
commensal organisms that become pathogens when a proper route of entry is available
optimum
most favorable; ideal or best
oronasal mask
A mask that covers both the nose and the mouth. Used as a BiPAP interface.
orthopnea
the ability to breath easily only in the upright position
orthostatic
related to or caused by body position
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration; an agency of the federal government that oversees and regulates workplace safety and employee health
osmosis
the movement of fluid across a semipermeable membrane to a greater solute concentration
osteoporosis
a decrease in the mass-to-volume ratio of mineralized bone
otitis media
inflammation or infection of the middle ear
oxygen concentrator
a device that extracts high concentrations of oxygen from room air
oxygen-conserving devices
oxygen delivery devices that attempt to limit the waste of oxygen during use
palliative
relieves or soothes symptoms without a cure
pallor
paleness of the skin
palpation
examination by means of the hands
para
a woman who has given birth to an infant; denoted by a numerical prefix for each occurrence
paradoxical respiration
a type of breathing in which part of the lung deflates during inspiration and expands during expiration; a respiration that is the opposite of expected
paralysis
a loss of power of voluntary movement through injury or disease
paramagnetic
a substance that is in the same direction in an induced magnetic field as the magnetizing field
parameters
a set of limits or guidelines
parasitism
organisms having a harmful relationship to the host
parasympatholytic
antagonist to parasympathetic system (anticholinergic)
parasympathomimetic
mimics the effects of the parasympathetic system
parenchyma
the functional tissue of an organ (as opposed to supporting structures)
parenteral
denoting any route other than the gastrointestinal tract
paresis
partial or incomplete paralysis; muscle weakness
paresthesia
a tingling sensation in the extremities; "pins and needles"
paroxysmal (cough)
a sudden attack, often violent in nature
particulate
in the form of fi ne particles, very small piece or portion of solid or liquid
pasteurization
a disinfection technique using increased temperature for a specific period of time
patency
a condition of being wide open and unblocked
pathogen
a disease-producing organism
pathology
study of abnormal structure
pathophysiology
the study of mechanisms of disordered function
pectoriloquy
the increased transmission of vocal sound through consolidated lung tissue
pectus carinatum
a condition of an abnormally protruding sternum; pigeon breast
pectus excavatum
a condition of an abnormally concave sternum; funnel chest
penetration
the process or capacity of entering within a part
percussion
a diagnostic technique of manually striking on a body part, using short, sharp blows, to produce a sound in order to determine the size, position, or density of the underlying structures
perforate
to pierce through and make a hole
perforation
A hole made by piercing through a structure such as an artery or vein
perfusion
the passage of a fluid through the body (usually blood)
periodic breathing
an irregular breathing pattern with recurring intervals of apnea common in premature infants
permeability
the state of permitting passage of a substance
phagocytosis
the process by which a cell "eats" by engulfing particles; a type of endocytosis
phalanges
(plural of phalanx) digits; any bone of the fingers or toes
pharmaceutical
the study or phase of drugs including dosage, preparation, dispensation, and routes of administration
pharmacodynamics
the study of drug mechanisms, actions, effects, and side effects
pharmacognosy
the branch of pharmacology studying natural drugs and their constituents and sources
pharmacokinetics
the study of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs
pharmacology
the study of drugs, their processes, origin, nature, properties, uses, and effects
phlebostatic axis
the location of the right atrium, found by drawing an imaginary line from the fourth intercostal space at the right side of the sternum to an intersection with the midaxillary line
phlebotomist
the member of the health-care team who performs venipuncture
phlebotomy
the opening of a vein to draw blood
phlegm
the common or nonmedical term used to describe thick mucus produced in the airways
phonation
the utterance of vocal sounds; speech
piezoelectric
the generation of a voltage in a solid when a mechanical stress is applied; the conversion of one form of energy to another, such as electrical into mechanical
Pin Index Safety System (PISS)
used to connect regulators to small, high-pressure cylinders
pinna
the auricle or external ear
placenta
a highly vascular organ that supplies oxygen and nutrients to a developing fetus
placenta previa
a malposition of the placenta in which it blocks the opening to the cervix
plateau
a level or stable event or place
platypnea
dyspnea in the upright position
pleural effusion
an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
pleural friction rub
a grating noise heard on auscultation associated with inflammation of the pleural linings
pleural space
a potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the lining of the lungs
pleuritic (pain)
pertaining to the pleura, a sharp stabbing localized pain
pneumatic
pertaining to gas or air
pneumatocele
a large, thin-walled, air-filled cyst
pneumoconiosis
a lung disease associated with the inhalation of dust, often occupation related
pneumotachometer
a device that measures the flow of respiratory gases
pneumothorax
the accumulation of air in the pleural space
point of care
a term used to describe the ability to perform a service immediately; this is illustrated by the ability to analyze a blood gas sample where the puncture was performed without having to transport the sample to a remote laboratory for analysis
polarograph
a device that works by estimating the concentration of elements in an electrochemical cell that can be reduced or produce electrons during an oxidation-reduction reaction
polarographic
utilizing the electrochemical properties of oxygen in order to determine the concentration of oxygen in a mixture
polycythemia
increase in the amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin
polyhydramnios
an abnormal excess of amniotic fluid
polyps
a growth or mass protruding from a mucous membrane
poncho
a blanketlike cloak with a hole for the head
pop-off
a term used to describe various release mechanisms used to relieve excess pressure in a system
positive expiratory pressure (PEP)
the application of positive expiratory pressure on the airways; an example of PEP is pursed-lip breathing
positive pressure
a force exerted greater than atmospheric pressure
posterior
toward the back
postterm
postmature; being born after a prolonged gestational period
potency
the power or strength of a medicinal agent to produce desired effect
potentiation
the enhancement of one agent by another to increase effect (e.g., 1 1 3)
pounds per square inch (psi)
a unit of measure for pressure pounds per square inch above gauge (psig): a unit of measure for pressure in which atmospheric pressure is the baseline and only the pressure above atmospheric is measured
preanalytical
occurring before analysis or laboratory examination of a specimen
precision
repeatability; the statistical quality control of a measurement
preeclampsia
a condition during late pregnancy characterized by edema, proteinuria, and hypertension; can lead to eclampsia or seizures if not treated
pressure
a force exerted against the walls of a container; for example, blood pressure can be defi ned as the force exerted against the walls of a blood vessel
pressure-limited/volume-variable ventilator
a type of mechanical ventilation when the pressure delivered by the ventilator is preset by the clinician and the volume is dependent upon the airway resistance and lung compliance
pressure ventilator
a ventilator designed to deliver a clinician selected pressure
preterm
being born before completion of the normal gestational period; premature
professionalism
the conduct displayed by an individual dictated by a code of behavior determined a particular profession
proficiency
competency; performance with correctness and facility
prokaryotic
a cell without a true nucleus
proliferation
rapid growth and multiplication
prone
lying face down
propellant
an agent incorporated into a mixture in order to cause a forceful expulsion
prophylactic
a preventive agent
prophylaxis
the prevention of the development or spread of disease
protein binding
bonding of a drug with plasma albumin, decreasing biological availability
protocol
a set policy or set of steps to be used
proximal
the nearest point of reference
pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
intravascular pressure measured by the distal tip of a flow-directed pulmonary artery catheter (Swan Ganz) when the balloon is inflated; this lodges the catheter tip into the vessel and occludes all blood flow past that point, giving a pressure measurement equivalent to the left ventricular preload
pulmonary vascular resistance
a force opposing the flow through the pulmonary capillary bed, related to density, velocity, length, and radius of the vessels
purulent
consisting of pus
pus
a collection of dead cells and debris associated with infection; a product of liquefaction necrosis
quadriplegia
paralyzed in all four extremities, usually from the neck down (same as tetraplegia)
racemic
containing equal parts of both levo and dextro forms of the tereoisomers
radiodense
resistant to penetration of x-rays; radiopaque or "white"
radiolucent
able to be penetrated by x-rays; "black"
rales
crackles heard on auscultation created by fluid-filled alveoli, or small airways, or atelectasis
reagent
a substance used in a chemical reaction to detect, measure, or produce other substances
receptor
a specialized area in a cell that recognizes and bonds with specific substances producing some effect on the cell
recoil
to return to original shape
reducing valve
a device used to decrease the high pressure in a gas cylinder to a lower working pressure
redundancy
duplication or repetition; excess above what is required
refractory
resisting stimulation or treatment
regression equation
a formula for the calculation of a variable approaching the mean value in a statistically significant relationship among several variables
regulator
a combination reducing valve and flowmeter; used to decrease the pressure of a gas cylinder and control the output flow
relative humidity
percent of the actual atmospheric moisture to the maximum capacity that could be present at a specific temperature
reliability
the extent of reproducibility of a test or device with different investigators, or administration of a test over time
repolarization
the return of ionic distribution to a resting state
reproducibility
repeatability; duplication of a similar structure, situation, or phenomenon
reservoir
a storage chamber or receptacle for fluids
resistance
the opposition to force or flow
resonance
an echo or sound produced by percussion of an organ or cavity; related to the frequency of vibration
respiration
the exchange of gases across a semipermeable membrane
resuscitation
the process of sustaining the vital functions of a person in respiratory or cardiac failure while reviving the person
reticulogranular
a description of the chest x-ray finding of cloudiness as found in respiratory distress syndrome
retractions
a drawing back of soft tissue between the ribs during labored breathing
rhonchi
rumbling sounds on auscultation from fluid in the larger airways; usually more pronounced on expiration and clearing with a cough
rigid bronchoscopy
a bronchoscope that is larger and stiffer than a flexible fiber optic bronchoscope
safety
without danger or harm
scale
The size or view of an image or projection
scoliosis
a lateral curvature of the spine
sedation
administration of a drug to allay irritability or excitement; calming effect
segment
the smaller distal portion of an organ or structure
Sellick maneuver
the application of cricoid pressure during orotracheal intubation in order to prevent regurgitation
semi-Fowler's position
an elevated position with the head of the patient at least 30 elevated
sensitivity
a capacity to feel, transmit, or react to a stimulus
sensor
a device designed to respond to a physical stimulus and transmit the resulting impulses
sensorium
psychiatric consciousness; intelligent functional ability
sepsis
the presence of disease-producing organisms in the blood causing a systemic infection, shock
septicemia
the presence of bacteria in the blood to a point of disruption of homeostasis
serous
resembling serum; thin, watery, delicate
sharps container
a punctureproof receptacle used for the disposal of sharp objects such as needles
shunt
perfusion without ventilation (true shunt) or in excess of ventilation (shunt effect); low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) ratio
sinusitis
an inflammation or infection of the nasal sinuses
slope
an angle of incline upward or downward
solubility
the ability to be dissolved
soluble
able to dissolve
solute
a substance that dissolves in another substance
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
the liquid portion of a solution capable of dissolving another substance
somnolent
sleepy, drowsy
spacer
an auxiliary device used on a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) to reduce the impaction of aerosol particles on the pharynx
specific gravity
the weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal amount of some other substance (usually water for liquids) taken as a standard
specificity
a quality of reacting with only certain substances or having only certain actions or effects
spectrophotometry
a technique of measurement using the absorption of visible light by a substance
sphygmomanometer
an instrument for measuring arterial blood pressure
spirometer
an instrument for measuring inhaled or exhaled lung volumes
splint
support; device to fix movable parts in order to lessen pain or promote healing
spontaneous breathing test (SBT)
a trial of breathing without the use of a mechanical ventilator used as a predictor of weaning readiness
sputum
the mucus produced in the lung that is coughed up and expectorated
standard deviation (SD)
a statistical term measuring the dispersion of a random variable; the square root of the average squared deviation from the mean; for data with a normal distribution, 68% of data points will fall within 1 SD, and 95% will fall within 2 SD
static
at a constant level; stoppage of flow
stenosis
abnormal constriction or narrowing
sterilization
the removal or destruction of all living organisms, including spores
stoma
a hole or opening; similar to a mouth
stridor
a high-pitched crowing sound on inspiration usually due to an upper airway obstruction
subcutaneous emphysema
air in the tissue under the skin; creates crepitus
subcutaneous
beneath the layers of skin
subglottic
below the glottis; cricoid area
sublimation
the process of vaporizing a solid to a gas without passing through the liquid phase
suction control chamber
a component of a chest tube drainage system related to the amount of negative pressure being applied to the system
superimposed
on top of; occurring at the same time
superior
above or top portion
supine
lying face upward on back
supraglottic
above the glottis or opening to the larynx
surfactant
a surface-active, or detergent-like, agent; a phospholipid substance secreted by type II alveolar cells to reduce surface tension
surrogate
a substitute
symbiosis
mutualism; a mutually beneficial relationship
symmetrical
correspondence in size, form, and arrangement of parts on opposite sides
sympatholytic
an antagonist to the sympathetic system (antiadrenergic)
sympathomimetic
mimics the sympathetic system
sympathy
the concern of the emotional and physical concerns of another; compare to the definition of empathy
synchrony
occurs at the same time
syncope
fainting
synergism
the joint action of agents or organisms; the combined effect is greater than the sum of individual actions; enhances action (1 1 3)
systemic
pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole
systemic vascular resistance
forces opposing blood flow in the main circulation
systole
a period of contraction of the heart
systolic pressure
the peak force exerted during contraction phase of the ventricles
tachycardia
an abnormally rapid heart rate, greater than 100 bpm in an adult
tachyphylaxis
a sudden marked decrease in effect from repeated administration; rapid tolerance
tachypnea
a rapid rate of breathing
tandem
an arrangement of two or more objects
targeting schemes
the ability of a ventilator to adjust ventilation based on target values set by the clinician
tenacious
adhesive, thick
tetany
a sustained muscle contraction or spasm, without twitching
The Joint Commission
formerly the Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO); a private organization not associated with the government that establishes guidelines for the operation of hospitals and home care agencies; their policies and programs are associated with quality delivery of health care; accreditation by The Joint Commission is essential for recognition by insurance companies, especially Medicare
thermophilic
heat loving
thoracic pump
a phenomenon in which the subatmospheric pressure in the chest cavity aids in venous return
thrombus
a blood clot, often obstructing a vessel
thrush
a term used to describe candidiasis, a fungal infection caused by Candidaalbicans
thumb control
an apparatus controlled by the action of the thumb
tidaling
Fluctuations in the water seal chamber in a chest tube drainage system seen during tidal breathing
time
a parameter of mechanical ventilation related to the passage of conventional time measurement
titrate
to analyze by incrementally adding a fluid of a known strength until a given endpoint is reached
tocolytic
related to the disruption of premature labor
tolerance
a decreased response or sensitivity to subsequent repeated doses of the same substance or need for increasing doses to maintain a constant response
tomography
an image technique producing single-image planes or slices
tonicity
the effective osmotic pressure
topical
applied to a certain area, such as the skin or mucous membrane, for localized effect
torr
a unit of pressure = 1 mm Hg
tortuous
comprised of twists and turns, as in a tortuous aorta
tourniquet
a device for compression of a blood vessel
toxicology
the study of the harmful effects of drugs in an organism
tracheomalacia
a softening or destruction of tracheal connective tissue resulting from the increased pressure of an improperly inflated endotracheal or tracheostomy tube cuff
tracheostomy
a tube inserted into an opening in the windpipe to provide an airway, or the opening itself
tracheotomy
a surgical procedure to create a tracheostomy
tragus
a cartilaginous projection anterior to the meatus of the ear
transcutaneous
through the skin
transducer
a device that converts one physical quantity to another (e.g., pressure to electrical)
transillumination
a passage of strong light through a body structure to permit inspection of an observer on the opposite side
transpulmonary pressure
a difference in pressure between the alveoli and pleural space
transudate
fluid low in protein; passed through membrane by altered hydrostatic or osmotic pressure
Trendelenburg position
a position that involves the patient lying inclined with the head lower than the feet
turbulent
flow with chaotic, irregular eddies
turgor
a condition of fullness; the extent of swelling or congestion
tympanitic
drumlike
umbilical artery
a vessel in the cord that connects the fetus to the placenta; returns blood from the fetal heart to the placenta
umbilical vein
a vessel in the cord that connects the fetus to the placenta; returns blood from the placenta to the fetus
unifocal
originating from one point
unilateral
affecting one side only
uvula
a pendant-like, fleshy mass; structure in back of the throat
Vacutainer®
a blood-collecting device used during phlebotomy
vacuum
the absence of or decrease in pressure, creating suction
validity
extent to which a measuring device measures what it intends or purports to measure; must be precise, accurate, reliable, and reproducible
vallecula
a depression or furrow; a groove behind the epiglottis
valve stem
a projection used to turn a control device or stopcock
vane
a thin, flat or curved object that is rotated about an axis by a flow of fluid
variability
differences among items; the quality of being changeable
vascular
pertaining to blood vessels
vasoconstriction
a decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
vasodilation
a relaxation or widening of blood vessels
vector
an agent such as insect that transmits disease from sick human to another person; directional force
venesection
an alternate term for phlebotomy
venipuncture
the procedure used to puncture a vein for the purpose of obtaining blood
ventilation
bulk movement of gases in and out of the lungs
ventilator dependence
a term used to describe the inability to be weaned from mechanical ventilation
ventricle
a cavity or chamber of a body part or organ; the lower heart chambers
Venturi
a tube designed with a constricted point to increase the velocity of flow in order to entrain air or fluid into the main flow of gas
vernix
a cheesy coating on the skin of the fetus
virology
the study of viruses
virulence
the degree of pathogenicity; the ability to invade, proliferate, and cause disease
virulent
an agent that has an increased degree of pathogenicity
viscosity
resistance to flow; physical property dependent on friction; thickness
volatile
evaporating rapidly
volume
the space occupied by an object; in mechanical ventilation, it refers to the amount of space occupied by an amount of air
volume limited/pressure variable
a term applied to mechanical ventilation where the volume is predetermined by the clinician and the amount of pressure required to deliver the volume is dependent upon lung compliance and airway resistance
volume ventilator
a mechanical ventilator designed to deliver a designated volume of gas
volutrauma
a physical injury to lung tissue caused by excessive volumes
water-seal chamber
a component of a chest tube drainage system related to the volume of water required to maintain a closed system, or seal, between the lung and the drainage system
weaning
the process of gradually withdrawing from life support
wheal
a raised, round, red lesion of the skin, usually edematous and itchy; a welt
wheezing
making a polyphonic high-pitched noise, a whistling sound, usually due to narrowing of the airways
whispered pectoriloquy
the transmission of a muted or whispered sound through the lung parenchyma that is indicative of consolidation
wye
a branching or bifurcated connection shaped like the letter "y" (e.g., from a ventilator circuit to an artifi cial airway)
x-axis
The horizontal direction of a graph
y-axis
The vertical direction of a graph
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