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Biology: Unit 4: Chapter 13
Terms in this set (46)
allowing only those organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
humans use ... which takes advantage of naturally occurring .... in plants, animals, or other organisms, to pass .... to the next generation
selective breeding, genetic variation, desired traits
crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms
individuals produced by crosses
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
What can result from excessive inbreeding? Why?
genetic defects b/c since genetically similar there's a chance that a cross will bring two recessive alleles for a genetic defeat
Breeders can .. the genetic variation in a population by .... which are the ultimate source of ...
increase, inducing mutations, genetic variation
How can the induce mutations?
through chemicals and radiation
How do you produce new kinds of bacteria?
through radiation or chemicals because of their small size
How do they produce new kinds of plants?
they use drugs that prevent chromosomal separation during meiosis which create cells with double normal number of chromosomes = polyploidy
polyploidy is .. in animals
scientists use their knowledge of the ... and it's ... to sudy and change DNA molecules. Different techniques are used to ... DNA from cells, to ... DNA into ... pieces, to ... the sequence of ... in a molecule, and to make ... of DNA
structure of DNA, chemical properties, extract, cut, smaller, identify, bases, unlimited copies
process of making changes in the DNA code of a living organism
chemical procedure: cells opened and DNA is separated from other parts
DNA is too ... to work with so they ... them using ...
large, cut, restriction enzymes
each cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
procedure to separate and analyze DNA fragments
Process of Gel Electrophoresis
Mixture of DNA fragments placed at one end of porous gel, electric voltage is applied, when on DNA molecules (negatively charged) move toward positive end, smaller DNA fragments move faster and farther
What Gel Electrophoresis is used for
used to compare the genomes or gene composition, locate individual genes, identify base pair sequence
knowing the sequence of an organisms DNA allows...
researchers to stud specific genes, compare them with genes of other organisms, and to discover the functions of different genes and gene combos
How they read the sequence
take strand of DNA and add DNA polymerase which uses the strand as a template to make a new DNA, researchers add a chemical dye base terminating the synthesis of that strand, when completed strands are of different lengths
short sequences can be assembled using laboratory machines known as ...
... sequences can be joined to ... ones using ... that splice DNA together
"synthetic" "natural" enzymes
the ... make it possible to take a .. from one organism and attach it to the .. of another
enzymes, gene, DNA
DNA molecules produced by combining DNA from different sources
Polymerase Chain Reaction
makes copies of a particular gene
process of PCR
at both ends of DNA piece they add short piece of complementary DNA (known as primers), DNA is heated to separate the strands then cooled to allow primers to bind to single stranded DNA, DNA polymerase starts making copies of region btwn primers
During ..., a cell takes in ... from the outside of the cell. This ... becomes a ... of the cell's DNA
tranformation, DNA, external DNA, component
circular DNA molecule
Two essential features of plasmids
- has DNA sequence that promotes plasmid replication (if plasmid containing DNA gets inside of the cell the sequence ensures it'll be replicated)
- has a genetic marker
gene that distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid (and foreign DNA) to those that don't
What does a marker make possible?
to mix recombinant plasmids with a culture of bacteria, add enough DNA to transform one cell in a million, and still be able to find that cell
Processes of transforming bacteria
foreign DNA is attached to plasmid, and inserted into cell
Many plant cells can be transformed by using a process that takes advantage of ...
this ... inserts a small ... that produces ... into a plant's cells, you can ... the tumor producing gene and ... a piece of foreign DNA into the ..., this can be used to infect plant cells
bacterium, DNA plasmid, tumors, inactivate, insert, plasmid
if their ... are down they will take up .. on their own or you can ... them
cell walls, DNA, inject
if ... is successful, the ... is integrated into one of the ... of the cell
transformation, recombinant DNA, chromosomes
If the egg cell is large enough ... can be injected directly to the ..., once inside the nucleus, ... responsible for DNA ... and ... insert it into the ...
DNA, nucleus, enzymes, repair, recombination, chromosomes
DNA molecules in transformation of animal and plant cells have...
you can ... particular genes
... can be constructed with two ends that will recombine with specific sequences in the ..., once they do the ... found between the sequence can get ... or ... with a new gene
DNA molecules, host chromosome, host gene, lost, replaced
this kind of gene replacement has made it possible to pinpoint the specific ... of genes
contains genes from other species
... has spurred the growth of ... which is a new industry that's changing the way we interact with the ... world
genetic engineering, biotechnology, living
member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
process of cloning an animal
you take a egg cell from one sheep and a cell from another, take out the nucleus of the egg cell and fuse the two cells together by an electric shock, it creates an embryo which divides and you place back in a "foster mother" sheep's utterus
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Biology: Chapter 6
Biology: Chapter 35
Biology: Unit 1
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