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Berlin Conference

largely European war with some black South Africans

Boer War

new period of... 18th and 19th centuries were different from 15th and 16th centuries


four forms of colonial control

colony, protectorate, sphere of influence, and economic imperialism

Britain, USA, and others prefered this method of day to day management of the colony


France and most European countries prefered this method of day to day management of the colony


indirect control relied on this. each colony had a legislative council that included colonial officials as well as local merchants and professionals. this happened in the British colonies of Australia and Canada and in the 1890s in the USA controlling the Philippines

existing political rulers


the attitude (of a person or a government) that subordinates should be controlled in a fatherly way for their own good

Europeans brought in their own bureaucrats and did not train local people in European methods of governing because they believed in ________ control

direct control


the process by which the local populations gradually adopted French culture and become like the French. all local schools, courts, and businesses were patterned after French institutions

policy that the French settled for in most places after abandoning assimilation, similar to indirect control


number of ethnic groups in Nigeria


three largest ethnic groups in Nigeria

the Hausa- Fulani in the north, the Yoruba in the southwest, and the Igbo in the southeast

Hausa-Fulani religion and government systems

Muslim, strong central government

Igbo and Yoruba religion and government systems

followed traditional religions and relied on local chiefs for control

number of years Algeria resisted French rule

50 years

leader of West African resistance against the French, fought them off for 16 years

Samori Toure

Maji Maji rebellion

Africans believed that if they sprinkled magic water on them then it would turn the Germans' bullets into water (unsuccessful resistance) over 20 different ethnic groups fought united

number killed by German machine guns during Maji Maji rebellion

75,000 resisters, twice that number perished in famine that followed

only country that successfully resisted Europeans


emperor of Ethiopia starting in 1889 that lead resistance

Menelik II

country that signed a treaty with Ethiopia


reason Menelik declared war on Italian forces advancing into northern Ethiopia

differences between the wording in the treaty in the Ethiopian and language and in Italian, Menelik thought he was giving up a tiny portion of Ethiopia, Italians claimed all of it

battle in 1896 when Ethiopian forces defeated Italians

Battle of Adowa- 1896

this leader built up a large arsenal of modern weapons purchased from France and Russia

Menelik II

negative effects of European colonial rule on Africans

lost control of their land
many died of new diseases such as smallpox
breakdown of traditional cultures
division of the African continent

positive effects of European colonial rule on Africans

reduced local warfare
improved sanitation and provided hospitals and schools in some places
economic expansion
railroads, dams, telephone and telegraph lines were built


a country or a territory governed internally by a foreign power


a country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power

sphere of influence

an area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges

economic imperialism

an independent but less-developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments

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