8th Grade STAAR Reading Vocab Review

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Terms in this set (105)
autobiographythe story of a person's life written by that person in first person point of viewpoint of viewthe perspective from which a story is toldfirst person point of viewTold from the viewpoint of one of the characters using the pronouns "I" and We"third person limited point of viewthe narrator focuses on the thoughts and feelings of only one characterthird person omniscent point of viewtold by an all-knowing narrator from outside the story who reveals what every character thinks and feelsalliterationthe repetition of consonant SOUNDS at the beginning of words. For example, Sally sells seashells by the sea shore.personificationgiving human qualities to non-human things (Example: the wind whistled)similecomparison using like or as. Clue: You "smile" when you see someone you like." Example: The car was as cold as ice.idioman expression with a meaning different from the literal meaning of the individual words (It's raining cats and dogs!)flashbackwhen a portion of the story goes back in timeforeshadowThe use of clues to suggest events that will happen later in the plotinference/inferto draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented (put clue together with your good brain)justifyto demonstrate that something is right; to defend with reasonsmediathe various methods of communicating informationthesaurusA listing of words with synonyms and antonymscontext cluesClues in surrounding text that help the reader determine the meaning of an unknown word (look above, in, below, and all around the text of the unfamiliar word)dialoguea conversation between two peoplecaptionssmall text found near a picture that provides important information about the picturestage directionsinstructions for actors and stage crew, usually set in italicsauthor's purposeThe reason the author has for writing. (Inform, persuade, express, explain & entertain)diagramsA drawing that shows or explains something...usually includes labels and captions.illustrationsDrawings or photographs that help explain the textmoralA practical lesson about right and wrongsensory detailswords and phrases that create imagery by using the 5 senses (sight, smell, sound, taste, touch)fictiona literary work based on the imagination and not necessarily on fact.nonfictionWriting that is factual, not creative or fictional.historical fictionfiction that involves an event in history. Contains historical facts, events, or people, but is not true.dramaa story written to be performed by actors; a playonomatopoeiathe use of words that represent sounds "Pow", "Bang"rhyme schemethe pattern of rhyme in a poem (ex. ABAB)internal rhymewhen two words rhyme in the same line of poetrycauseThe reason why something happensnarratorthe person who is telling the story; the speakercomparisonshows how two things are alike/different or how one is better than the otherexaggerateSometimes authors overstate the facts leading to a false of importance. (We will all be doomed if we don't take a stand now!) (This is a one-time offer. You can't get this price after today.) Key words: always, never, everyonemisleadingThis unreliable information is a technique used to mislead the reader.metaphora comparison or two unlike things without using like or as (Example: Her eyes are blue jewels.)hyperboleelaborate exaggeration (Example: I'm so hungry I could eat a horse OR I walked a million miles.)imagerya collection of word pictures that appeal to the reader's senses; uses devices such as metaphor, simile, etc.climaxthe turning point in the action of a story--the problem is solved (highest point of action)resolutionthe ending or final outcome of a storysequence or chronological (organizational pattern of expository text)signal words include: first; second; third; before; on (date); not long after; after that; next; at the same time; finally; then, following; now; when; since; until; during; at lastcompare and contrastsignal words include : like; unlike; but; in contrast; on the other hand; however; both; also; too; as well as; although; yet; nevertheless; as opposed to; whereascause and effect problem and solutionsignal words include: therefore; consequently; so; this led to; as a result; because; if...then; since; so that; thus; for this reason;drawing conclusionscombining several pieces of information to make an inference--to use details, facts, and evidence from a text to come to a new understanding about a topic or idea (infer, inference)expository textThis type of text informs or instructs the reader. It is nonfiction.figurative languagelanguage that means more than what it says on the surface; not actual or literal meaningplotthe events that make up a story (sequence of events - introduction, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution)prefixa word part that can be added at the beginning of a word to make a new word (Example: pregame)suffixa word part that can be added at the end of a word to make up a new word (Example: swimming)sensory detailswords and details that appeal to a reader's senses (sight, touch, taste, hearing, smell, emotion)sequencethe following of one thing after anothersummarizeto make a brief statement of the main events of a story. It has to have the beginning, middle and end. It should be precise (accurate) and concise (to the point).text featuresthe parts of a text that stand out (diagram, table of contents, index, etc)effecta phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenonreinforcestrengthen and supportaffectto influenceimpactinfluencing stronglystage directionsInstructions given to the actors so they know how to act and the tone of voice to use. These are used in dramas.propsThe items on the stage that the actors use. They give clues about the setting of the play.third person objective point of viewWhen the narrator only knows what the characters do and say. It's like a "camera view" of the story.author's purposeThe reason an author writes the text--to persuade, inform, explain and entertainmotivationthe reason the character says or does somethingdetermineda character trait used to describe someone who doesn't give up easily.confidenta character trait used to describe someone who feels good about him/herself.anxiousTo feel excited and nervous at the same time.audienceWho the piece of text was originally written for. Example: in a letter, look at who the letter is addressed to (Dear Mom,)dialoguea conversation between characters set off by quotation marks (what character is saying)stanzasimilar to a paragraph but in a poemlinesimilar to a sentence but in a poemresultthe outcome of an experiment or problemsimilaritywhen two things/people have something in commonsubtitlethe smaller title that goes before a new section of the text.validtruerelatedconnectedsourceWhere information comes from.affixa set of letters attached to the beginning or the end of a root word that changes the word's meaningaphorisma succinct statement of a philosophy or principle; often quoted (a penny saved is a penny earned)expositionthe beginning of the story--introduces the setting, characters, and the problemfalling actionpoint in a story where the conflict begins to be resolved (things start to wind down and story comes to an end)loaded termin persuasive text, a word or phrase that reveals the author's feelings and rouses the reader's emotionsparaphraseto summarize part of or all of a text you read in your own wordsrising actionthe bulk of a story, during which the character works to resolve the problem (conflict starts to happen and action rises)toneAuthor's attitude toward his subject - can be positive, negative, or neutralmoodAtmosphere created by the author's work (how it makes you feel--feeling created)connotationemotional meaning of a word--how it makes you feel (can be positive or negative--Example: he's a big guy OR he's SO fat!)denotationthe dictionary meaning (remember the D is for dictionary)common place assertiona statement that many people assume to be true, though it may or may not actually be true (Example: crop circles are created by aliens)factual claima statement that can be verified, independently and objectively with facts, personal observations, reliable sources, or an expert's findings (may use a statistic or number--there was a 20 percent increase in enrollment this year at our school)false assumptionthe fallacy of an idea or a principle that is untrue (Example: holding frogs give people warts)leading questiona question that suggests the desired answer or tries to make the audience think in a particular way (What do you think about the horrible effects of slavery?)caricaturean exaggerated, overly simplified version of an opposing point of view (features of a person enlarged--frequently used in cartoons--Example: President Obama with large ears or huge teeth)analogya word relationship that compares two dissimilar things (pen : writer :: hammer : carpenter (make a bridge sentence with the first set--a pen is used by a writer just like a hammer is used by a carpenter)antonymswords that are opposites (happy and sad)synonymswords that are similar (pretty and beautiful)