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Management review 3

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The demand, person, activity, or event that triggers an uncomfortable encounter is known as:
the stressor
The adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequence that may occur as a result of stressful events is known as:
distress
The fight-or-flight stress response is most closely associated with which approach to stress?
homeostatic
An employee with a major sales presentation on Monday and a sick child at home Sunday night is likely to experience:
interrole conflict
All of the following are stress-related interpersonal demands of the workplace except:
intrarole conflict
Psychosomatic disorders
are physical ailments that begin in the mind
Three direct costs of organizational distress include:
participation problems, performance decrements, and compensation awards
Organizational costs of distress may take the form of all of the following except
sabotage
Self-reliance is a healthy, secure, _____ pattern of behavior
interdependent
Secondary prevention is intended to
alter or modify the individual's or the organization's response to a demand
Which of the following is an example of a programmed decision situation?
purchase of a new mainframe computer
The initial step in a problem solving, decision situation is
problem recognition
Intuition would be a major part of the input for a manager making what kind of decision?
non programmed
The rational model of decision making assumes
that the decision maker can calculate the probability of success for alternatives
In the rational model, the decision maker strives to
optimize
You are starting your senior year of college and look forward to graduation in May. An important task at hand is selecting courses for your final year of study. All but two of your courses are electives. Your course selections will most likely be made based on the
bounded rationality model
An important element of the bounded rationality model is
satisficing
Heuristics are:
shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity
Which decision-making model is the most realistic in portraying the managerial decision process?
bounded rationality
The cognitive style that exhibits a preference for data and a detailed, objective approach to decision making is:
sensing/thinking
Which of the following best represents the three reasons why managers may hang on to a losing course of action or escalate their commitment?
cognitive dissonance, overly optimistic, and illusion of control
Continuing to support a failing course of action is known as
escalation of commitment
The right side of the brain is best used for which type of activity or decision
develop visions and strategic plans
The stage of creativity where one engages in other activities while the mind considers the problem is:
incubation
An organization could increase creativity by doing which of the following
eliminate office walls and cubicles
Searching for the "right" answer and avoiding problems outside of our own expertise would be considered what type of problem for creativity?
mental locks
If a person can affect the thoughts, behavior, and feelings of another person, she has
influence
Enlarging an employee's zone of indifference is accomplished by:
the use of power
As a management trainee, you are assigned to a mentor and gain considerable insight into the nature of management and how to behave in different managerial situations. The relationship you have with the mentor is based on _____ power.
referent
Assume you are a senior accounting major. A friend who is taking a Principles of Accounting course seeks you out for tutorial assistance. This is an example of _____ power.
expert
The power base of the future will likely be:
expert
The key element behind the factors used to explain power differences between groups based on the strategic contingency model is:
dependence
An important aspect of a manager's exercise of reward power in the determination of employee salary increases is:
distributive justice
If a salesperson significantly discounted the price of a product in order to make a sale that would win a contest, the salesperson would be most likely to breach which of the
utilitarian principle
McClelland has found that the best managers are those who have
a high need for social power and a low need for affiliation
An individual who seems to always have a full calendar and is frequently going to meetings displays _____, according to Korda.
time power
According to Michael Korda's view on power which emphasizes symbols of power, which of the following are the three unusual symbols used to explain power differences between individuals?
office furnishings, time power, and standing by
According to John Kotter, leadership (in contrast to management) entails
setting a direction for the organization
Kotter suggests that leadership and management:
are two distinct, yet complementary systems of action in organizations
Trait theories of leadership attempt to:
focus on leaders physical attributes, personality, and abilities
Which of the following is NOT one of the leadership theory categorization factors
attitudes
When comparing autocratic leadership style to democratic leadership style, democratic leaders:
do not closely supervise and allow employee initiative and decision making
According to the Michigan studies on leadership, a work environment characterized by constant influence attempts on the part of the leader through closer supervision or written rules and regulations is likely the result of:
employee-centered style
The impoverished manager is one who:
exerts just enough effort to avoid being fired.
The theories of leadership concerned with identifying the specific leader behaviors that are most effective in specific leadership situations would be:
behavioral theories
According to Fiedler, the effectiveness of leaders is dependent on:
the favorableness of their situation
Fiedler recommends that managers, in order to be effective, should
carefully assess and diagnose the situation
a projective technique that evaluates the person a leader has least preferred to work with
The LPC scale
The path-goal theory of leader effectiveness by Robert House is based on:
the expectancy theory of motivation
Which of the following is NOT one of the leader behavior styles one can choose from when using the path- goal theory of leader effectiveness
relationship-oriented
According to the Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model, all of the following are possible appropriate decision-making strategies except:
laissez-faire
The key situational variable of the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model is:
maturity level of employees
In the Hershey-Blanchard situational leadership model, maturity is determined by:
a follower's ability and willingness to accept responsibility for completing work
Transformational leaders have been found to:
inspire followers to perform beyond expectations
Conflict involves disagreement between two or more parties because of
incompatible goals
The power not only to control emotions but also to perceive them is termed:
emotional intelligence
According to the discussion of conflict offered in the text, conflict cannot be:
prevented
One occasion in which managers should work to stimulate conflict is when:
the group suffers from group think
two departments in a university are engaged in a conflict because one had its budget cut. This is an example of conflict based on:
common resources
You have a problem with your computer, so you call the company that made it. They inform you that the problem is caused by software, so you call the software division and they tell you it's the hardware. This is an example of:
jurisdictional ambiguities
Two machine operators disagree over the cause of an equipment breakdown. This conflict is based on differences in:
perception
The conflict that occurs between a company and a union during a strike is:
interorganizational
Conflict that occurs between two or more individuals would be considered:
interpersonal conflict
As a supervisor, you are not likely to be able to solve _____ conflict of others.
intrapersonal
One of the positive sides of intrapersonal conflicts is
defining moments
When one's values conflict with his/her job demands, this is _____ conflict.
person-role
A good technique for managing intrarole conflict is:
role analysis
A defense mechanism in which an individual continues dysfunctional behavior that will clearly not solve a conflict is known as:
fixation
An ineffective technique for dealing with conflict where a delaying action is used to buy time is referred to as:
administrative orbiting
When contrasting American and Japanese business cultures, Americans tend to _____, whereas the Japanese prefer _____.
be individualistic; collectivism
In research on styles of conflict management, the _____ style was least effective.
avoiding
When two departments are in conflict but are also facing a common threat, the _____ style of conflict management is most appropriate.
collaborating