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100 terms

disease list

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anthrax
agent: bacillus anthracis (bacteria)
trans: airborn spores, biological warfare, animal products
S & S: malignant pustule at site penetration through skin: pulmonary anthrax cough, myalagia, respiratory distress, cyanosis, intestinal nathrax dirarrhea with bloody stools, prostration, shock, death
treatment: aggressive therapy with penicillin: tetracycline
immunization: vaccine for animal; none for humans
botulism
agent: clostridium botulinum (bacteria)
trans: contaminated food
s & s: facial paralysis, blurred vision, slurred speech numbing in extremities, vomiting, difficult breathing, respiratory paralysis, possible death
treatment: aggressive antitoxin therapy,
cholera
Vibrio cholerae (bacteria)
transmission: fecally-contaminatied food and drink
choleratreatment: fluid and electrolyte replacement, tetracyline
Immunization: Dead V. cholerae in vaccine for limited immunity.
food poisoning
agent: Staphylococci aureus (bacteria)
transmission: contaminiated food
s & s: brief but intense diarrhea, nausea , abdominal pain
treatment: symptomatic
diptheria
Agent: Corynebacterium diphtheriae (bacteria)
transmission: airborne droplets
S & S: respiratory obstruction leads to suffocation: swollen, bull neck, temporary facial paralysis, heart, muscle kidney liver and other orang irregularities
treatment: aggressive therapy with diphtheria antitoxin and peicillin or erythromycin.
immunization: diphtheria (D) toxoid in DPT vaccine
typhus
agent: Rickettsia typhi (bacteria)
transmission: rat flea
S& S: maculopapular rash first on body trunk, then extremities, fever for about 2 weeks, symptoms milder than in epidemic typhus
treatment: tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin
gas gengrene
agent: Clostridial perfringens (bacteria)
transmission: contaminated soil, broken skin
s & s: swollen gangreenous tissue, rapidly spreading cellular necrosis anemia, severe toxemia, and shock, possible death
treatement: vigorious dibidement of tissue, aggressive peicillin therapy, antiotoxin therapy possible, hyperbaric oxygen
gonorrhea
agent: Neisseria gonorrhoaea (bacteria)
transmission: sexual contact
s & s: pain on urination, yellow, creamy discharg (espicially in males), females often asymptomatic, infertility possible due to blockage, conjunctivitis and possible blindness if contacted during birth (gonococcal ophthalmia)
treatment: penicilin (resistant strains called penicillinase-producing NG, or PPNG, tetracycline or ceftriaxone alternatives
leprosy
agent; Mycobacterium leprae (bacteria)
transmission: contact; respiratory secretions
s & s: for tuberculoid leprosy: macular lesions with raised erythematous edges on trunk, face and limbs; localized nerve destruction lead to anaesthesia and injury to skin tissues
treatment: extended treatment with dapsone; clofazimine; rifampin.
pneumonia
agent; Mycoplasma pneumonia (bacteria)
transmission: repiratory droplets
s & s: dry, hacking cough, and influenzalike symptoms, fever, fatigue and respiratory congestion
treatment: erythromycin, tertacycline, absence of cell wall negates penicilin use.
Prevention: pneumococcal vaccine
pertussis (whooping cough)
agent: Bordetella pertussis (bacteria)
transmission: airborne droplets
symptoms: mild coughing and sneezing,, explosive cough and whoop on rapid inspiration, possible cyanosis and convultions
treatment; erythromycin and other antimicrobials
immunization: acellular pertussis vaccine in DTaP trivalent vaccine; older vaccine DTP cantained crude, whole-cell preparation
Bubonic plague
agent: Yersinia pestis (Bacteria)
transmission: rat flea or airborne droplets
symptoms: enlarged, tender lymph nodes especially in neck, armpits, and groin; intense fever, with ssepticemia; terminal pneumonia; menigintitis; heart failure
tetanus
Agent: Clostridium tetani (bacteria)
transmission: enters through cut/wounds with soil containated objects
symptoms; spontaneous muscle contractions and uncontrolled muscle spasms throughout body; fists clench; back arches; fixed smile on face; jaw muscles lock; spastic respiratory movements, stiff neck, difficult swallowing
treatment: antibiotics; penicillin therapy for bacteria
trachoma
agent: Chlamydia trachomatis (bacteria)
transmission: skin contact; contaminated object, Flies
symptoms; tiny,pale nodules on surface of conjunctiva giving it a rough apperance; possible scarring and blindness
treatment; Antibiotics
tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (bacteria)
transmission; respiratory droplets
symptoms: cough, influenzalike symptoms, chest pain rust colored sputum, spread to bones, liver, kidney, mennges; severe respiratory distress, cyanosis, night sweats
treatment: antibiotics, par-amino salicyclic acid, extended thearapy
immunization: bcg vaccine
Typhoid fever
agent: Salmonella typhi (bacteria)
transmission: fecal oral route
symptoms: abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, ulceration and perforation of intestinal wall can occur
treatment: chloramphenicl trimethorprim sulfamethoxazole
immunization: dead S.thypi in vaccine for low level immuity
chicken pox
agent: Varicella-Zoster Virus
Transmission: respiratory droplets; formites; contact
symptoms; fever malaise, teardrop-shaped fluid shaped filled skin vesicles, vesicles itch intensely and yield virus-ladenfluid; curst and fall off with a scar
treatment: symptomatic ; acyclovir available to relieve symptoms, Vaccines
Hepatitis B
Hepatis B virus (HBV) ; family Hepadnaviridae
transmission: blood and body fluids contact
symptoms; anorexia malaise, abdominal discomfort; jaundice, dark urine, clay colored stools, chronic liver diseae possilble progression to liver cancer
immunization: vaccie of viral proteins
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A Virus (HAV); family Picornaviridae
transmission: fecal oral route;
symptoms; anorexia, malaise, abdominal discomfort, jaundice, dark urine, clay colored stools
immunization; temporary passive immunity with hepatities A immune globulin; no vaccine availiable for long-term immunity
herpex simplex
agent; Herpes Simplex Virus1 and 2 (also known as the Human Herpes virus1 and 2); family Herpesviridae
transmission; skin contact sexual contact
symptoms; vesicular lesions of tongue, buccal surface, gums and pharynx in young children; vesicular or ulcerative lesions of oral srufaces, corneal and conjunctival infection with lesions, multiple, coalseced, thin walled blisters with pain and urethral discharge, cerebral edemaa and brain infection;
Infectious monoculeosis
Agent: epstein-Barr virus:
transmission; respiratory droplets, saliva contact formites
symptoms; enlarged lymph nodes, mild fever, sore throat, swollen spleen and heart defects can occur;
small pox
Variola Virus: Poxviridae
transmission; skin contact; respiratory droplets, formites
symptoms: abrupt fever, chills, rash progressing from pink spots to pink pimples to pustules to vesicles, rash apperas simultaneously over body surface; pock-marked skin; fatal disease
measles
aka. Rubeola agent; Measles Virus ; Paramyxoviridae
transmission; (aerosol) repiratory droplets, lesion exudates
symptoms; common cold like, rash on hair line and chest, lesion of oral cavity
immunization; attenuated measles virus in MMR vaccine
influenza
agent; Othromyxoviridae
transmission: respiratory droplets; hand to hand contact
symptoms: abrupt temperatur rise, sore throat, myalagia, muscular aches, anorexia, possible pneumonia, secondary bacterial infection possible and serious
treatment: antiviral drugs
immunizations: several inactivated strains; recommended for high-risk individuals.
mumps
agent; Paramyxoviridae
transmission: respiratory droplets
symptoms; edema and pain in salivary glands; taut skin over glands many asymptomatic infections; possible complications in male reproduction organs leading to some tissue atrophy
immunization; attenuated mumps virus in MMR vaccine
Polio
Poliovirus: Picornaviridae (virus)
transmission: fecal oral route.
symptoms; gastrointestinal distress, fever, malais, possible flaccid, then paralytic paralysis with spinal involvement or medulla involvemnet
immunization; sal vaccen containg formalin-treated inactivated viruses.
rabies
agent: rhabdoviridae (virus)
transmission; saliva transmission during bite of rabid animal
symptoms; abnormal sensations at bit location, fever irritability, aggressive behavior, muscle tension especially in swallowing muscles, intense reaction to slight sound
immunization: inactivated viruses cultivatedi human dipid fibroblast culture; preexposure immunzation to hish risk indiviual postexposure immunization to individulas bitten by animal
blastomycosis
Agent: Blastomyces dermitidis (fungus)
transmission; airborne spored from soil; associated with decaying wood
symptoms: respiratory distress, with flulike symptoms; infection of the liver, spleen skin and bone accompanied by granulomatous lesions
treatment: amphotericin B ketoconazole
cryptococcosis
Cryptococcus neoformans, C. grubii, C.gattii (Fungus)
transmission: airborne from pigeon droppings; respiratory normal flora
symptoms; respiratory distress, with primary lesions; meningitis, with intense frontal heasdache, rigidities, seizures; possible bone, spleen, other organ involvement
treatment; amphortercin b ; 5 fluorocytosine
amoebiasis
agent: Entamoeba histolytica (protozoa)
transmission: fecal oral route
symptoms: appendicitislike pain; blood in stools, some diarrhea
treatment; symptomatic to replace fluids and electrolytes; metronidazole iodoquinol.
giardiasis
agent: Giardia lamblia, G. infestinalis
transmission:wild animals, contaminated food and water
symptoms; mild to extensive diarrhea lasting for up to two weeks;
treatment: symptomatic
Malaria
Protozoan of 4 different types (1) Plasmodium falciparum(2)Plasmodium vivax(3)Plasmodium ovale
(4)Plasmodium malaria
transmission; mosquitoes
symptoms; severe chills, then high fever; severe anemia; blackened urine; renal and liver failure; brain damage,
treatment; quinine, chloroquine, primaquine, mefloquine
toxoplasmosis
toxoplasma gondii (protozoa)
transmission: contact with urine or skin or domestic cat; fecal oral route
symptome; swollen lymph nodes fever, rash; in fetus eye lesions, retina infection, encephalitis, possible abortion; in AIDS patients; encephalitis and seizures, possible cardial infection and pneumonia
treatment: Pyramethamine; sulfonaminde drugs
African sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
Agent: Trypanosoma brucei (protozoa)
transmission: tsetse fly
symptoms: painless shallow ulcer at the site of the tsetse fly bite; fever, headace, skin rash, mental distress, brain damage from demylination coma
treatment: suramin and pentadione
lyme disease
Borrelia burgdorferi (bacteria)
transmission; ticks
symptoms: expanding , reddened bulle eye skin lesion, fever neck stiffness; some weeks later joint pain, arthiritis at knees possible involvement of central nervous system and cardiac complications
treatment; aggressive therapy with tertacycline; alternativives penicillin, vancomycin, cephalosporins
Pharyngitis
Streptococcus pyogenes (bacteria)
transmission: respirtory droplets
symptoms: strep throat, high fever swollen lymph nodes swollen tonsils with pus, fiery red apperance pharyngeal tissues, scarlet fever streptococci in blood produce erythrogenic toxin that damages blood vessels and induces blood leakage to skin
treatment; aggressive antibiotic therapy with penicillin erythromycin
Typhus
Agent: Rickettsia typhi and R. prowazekii (parasites)
Transmission:Ticks, Lice and flea bites
S&S:chills, fever, aches in joints, delirium, death
Treatment: antibiotics
Roseola
agent: Herpesviridae (virus)
Transmissiion: fecal oral route, airborne droplets
S&S: high fever and rash
Treatment: none
ascariasis
agent: Ascaris lumbricoides (parasite) roundworm
transmission: ingesting, oral fecal route
s&s: abdominal discomfort, cough
prevention; hand washing, food sanitation
bacteral menigitis
Agent: Neisseria meniginitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia (bacteria)
transmission: respiratory, kissing, coughing
s&s: nausea, vomitig photophobia, altered mental status, stiff neck, convulsions, coma, hearing loss, joint damage, death
tratment: antibiotic treantment cetriaxone, vancomycin
prevention: vaccine Hib
elephantiasis
agent: Wuchereria bancrofti (parasite)
trans: mosquito bite
s&s: swelling of the legs and other extremities
Prevention: sleep uner mosquito net, wear long sleeves, and trousers mosquito repellant
treatment: diethylcarbamazine (DEC)
German Measles
Agent:Togaviridae (virus)
transmission respiratory droplets airborn
s&s: rash and fever for 2-3 days
Prevention: vaccine MMR
treatment: none...just for symptoms
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)
Agent: Bunyaviridae (virus)
trans: airborn, urin or feces of rodents
s&s: ftaigue, fever muscle, aches thighs, hips and back, dizziness, chills, nausea vomitting diarrhea, pneumonia
treatment: no specific treament
prevention: minimize exposure of mice, rodents in home
Rheumatic Fever
agent: group A streptococcus (bactreia)
transmission; respiatory
s&s: fever, painful and tender joints, red hot, or swollen small painless nodules beneath the skin
chest pain, fatigue, SOB
treatment: penicillian
Prevention: threat for strepthroat
schistosomiasis
agent: Schistosoma mansoni (parasitic worm)
Transmission: fresh water, penetrated skin
Prevention; water and sewage treatment, sanitation
s&s: anemia, malnutrition, learning difficulties
treatment: parziquantel
ehrlichiosos
Agent: Ehrilichia chaffensis (bacteria)
transmission: bite of an infected tick
Symptoms: flulike
Preventiton: wear light colored clothing, protective clothing, insect repellant, remove ticks promptly
treatment: doxycycline
tetracyclines
warts
Agent: Human Papilloma (virus)
Transmission: skin contact
s&s: lesions, light to dar , cauliflower like shape
prevention: use footwear in public showers and other public areas to avoid plantar warts- use condoms for intercourse
treatment: cryotherapy, cantharidin, electrodessication
salicylic acid,
west nile virus
Agent: West Nile virus (Flavivirus family)
prevention: protection from mosquito bites
s&s: high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, convulsions, muscle wearkness, vision loss, numbness, and paralysis
transmission: infected mosquitos when they feed on infected birds; transfusions, transplants, mother to child
syphilis
Agent: Treponema pallidium (bacteria)
Transmission: person to person through direct contact with syphilis sore, STD
treatment: single intramucular injection of penicillian
s&s: symptoms are latant, primary stage, chancre sor; secondary stage, skin rash rough red chancre
prevention: abstain from sexual contact or to be ina long-term mutually monogomous relationship.
Peptic ulcer
Agent: Helicobacter pylori (bacteria)
Transmission: person to person
Treatment: antibiotics
S&S: Abs pain, cramping, nausea, vomiting blood, perforation of intestine
Anaphylaxis
Agent: Allergen
Transmission: food, respiratory, insect bites, drug
S&S: shock, breathing difficulty, allergic conditions, hay fever
Prevention: avoid sensitizing, agent desensitization
Anaphylaxis
S&S: shock, breathing difficulty, allergic conditions, hay fever
Peptic ulcer
S&S: Abs pain, cramping, nausea, vomiting blood, perforation of intestine
Syphilis
s&s: symptoms are latant, primary stage, chancre sor; secondary stage, skin rash rough red chancre
prevention: abstain from sexual contact or to be ina long-term mutually monogomous relationship.
West Nile Virus
s&s: high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, convulsions, muscle wearkness, vision loss, numbness, and paralysis
warts
gent: papillomavirus s&s: lesions, light to dar , cauliflower like shape
prevention: use footwear in public showers and other public areas to avoid plantar warts- use condoms for intercourse
ehrlichiosos
Symptoms: flulike
schistosomiasis
s&s: anemia, malnutrition, learning difficulties
Rheumatic Fever
s&s: fever, painful and tender joints, red hot, or swollen small painless nodules beneath the skin
chest pain, fatigue, SOB
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)
s&s: ftaigue, fever muscle, aches thighs, hips and back, dizziness, chills, nausea vomitting diarrhea, pneumonia
German Measles
s&s: rash and fever for 2-3 days
elephantiasis
s&s: swelling of the legs and other extremities
bacteral menigitis
s&s: nausea, vomitig photophobia, altered mental status, stiff neck, convulsions, coma, hearing loss, joint damage, death
ascariasis
s&s: abdominal discomfort, cough
Roseola
S&S: high fever and rash
Typhus
S&S:chills, fever, aches in joints, delirium, death
Pharyngitis
symptoms: strep throat, high fever swollen lymph nodes swollen tonsils with pus, fiery red apperance pharyngeal tissues, scarlet fever streptococci in blood produce erythrogenic toxin that damages blood vessels and induces blood leakage to skin
lyme disease
symptoms: expanding , reddened bulle eye skin lesion, fever neck stiffness; some weeks later joint pain, arthiritis at knees possible involvement of central nervous system and cardiac complications
African sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
symptoms: painless shallow ulcer at the site of the tsetse fly bite; fever, headace, skin rash, mental distress, brain damage from demylination coma
toxoplasmosis
symptome; swollen lymph nodes fever, rash; in fetus eye lesions, retina infection, encephalitis, possible abortion; in AIDS patients; encephalitis and seizures, possible cardial infection and pneumonia
anthrax
S & S: malignant pustule at site penetration through skin: pulmonary anthrax cough, myalagia, respiratory distress, cyanosis, intestinal nathrax dirarrhea with bloody stools, prostration, shock, death
botulism
s & s: facial paralysis, blurred vision, slurred speech numbing in extremities, vomiting, difficult breathing, respiratory paralysis, possible death
Malaria
symptoms; severe chills, then high fever; severe anemia; blackened urine; renal and liver failure; brain damage
giardiasis
symptoms; mild to extensive diarrhea lasting for up to two weeks;
amoebiasis
symptoms: appendicitislike pain; blood in stools, some diarrhea
cryptococcosis
symptoms; respiratory distress, with primary lesions; meningitis, with intense frontal heasdache, rigidities, seizures; possible bone, spleen, other organ involvement
blastomycosis
symptoms: respiratory distress, with flulike symptoms; infection of the liver, spleen skin and bone accompanied by granulomatous lesions
rabies
symptoms; abnormal sensations at bit location, fever irritability, aggressive behavior, muscle tension especially in swallowing muscles, intense reaction to slight sound
Polio
symptoms; gastrointestinal distress, fever, malais, possible flaccid, then paralytic paralysis with spinal
mumps
symptoms; edema and pain in salivary glands; taut skin over glands many asymptomatic infections; possible complications in male reproduction organs leading to some tissue atrophy
influenza
symptoms: abrupt temperatur rise, sore throat, myalagia, muscular aches, anorexia, possible pneumonia, secondary bacterial infection possible and serious
measles
symptoms; common cold like, rash on hair line and chest, lesion of oral cavity
small pox
symptoms: abrupt fever, chills, rash progressing from pink spots to pink pimples to pustules to vesicles, rash apperas simultaneously over body surface; pock-marked skin; fatal disease
Infectious monoculeosis
symptoms; enlarged lymph nodes, mild fever, sore throat, swollen spleen and heart defects can occur;
herpex simplex
symptoms; vesicular lesions of tongue, buccal surface, gums and pharynx in young children; vesicular or ulcerative lesions of oral srufaces, corneal and conjunctival infection with lesions, multiple, coalseced, thin walled blisters with pain and urethral discharge, cerebral edemaa and brain infection
chicken pox
symptoms; fever malaise, teardrop-shaped fluid shaped filled skin vesicles, vesicles itch intensely and yield virus-ladenfluid; curst and fall off with a scar
Typhoid fever
symptoms: abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, ulceration and perforation of intestinal wall can occur
tuberculosis
symptoms: cough, influenzalike symptoms, chest pain rust colored sputum, spread to bones, liver, kidney, mennges; severe respiratory distress, cyanosis, night sweats
trachoma
symptoms; tiny,pale nodules on surface of conjunctiva giving it a rough apperance; possible scarring and blindness
tetanus
symptoms; spontaneous muscle contractions and uncontrolled muscle spasms throughout body; fists clench; back arches; fixed smile on face; jaw muscles lock; spastic respiratory movements, stiff neck, difficult swallowing
Bubonic plague
symptoms: enlarged, tender lymph nodes especially in neck, armpits, and groin; intense fever, with ssepticemia; terminal pneumonia; menigintitis; heart failure
pertussis (whooping cough)
symptoms: mild coughing and sneezing,, explosive cough and whoop on rapid inspiration, possible cyanosis and convultions
pneumonia
s & s: dry, hacking cough, and influenzalike symptoms, fever, fatigue and respiratory congestion
leprosy
s & s: for tuberculoid leprosy: macular lesions with raised erythematous edges on trunk, face and limbs; localized nerve destruction lead to anaesthesia and injury to skin tissues
gonorrhea
s & s: pain on urination, yellow, creamy discharg (espicially in males), females often asymptomatic, infertility possible due to blockage, conjunctivitis and possible blindness if contacted during birth (gonococcal ophthalmia)
typhus
S& S: maculopapular rash first on body trunk, then extremities, fever for about 2 weeks,
food poisoning
s & s: brief but intense diarrhea, nausea , abdominal pain
diptheria
S & S: respiratory obstruction leads to suffocation: swollen, bull neck, temporary facial paralysis, heart, muscle kidney liver and other orang irregularities
Hepatitis B
symptoms; anorexia malaise, abdominal discomfort; jaundice, dark urine, clay colored stools, chronic liver diseae possilble progression to liver cancer
Hepatitis A
symptoms; anorexia, malaise, abdominal discomfort, jaundice, dark urine, clay colored stools