16 terms

Period 5 Flashcards (1844 - 1877)

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Why 1844 - 1877 was chosen as the dates for period 5
Beginning with Polk's election (US expansion and Manifest Destiny) through the end of Reconstruction
Manifest Destiny
Belief that it was the US' right to expand from coast to coast. Built on white racial superiority and American cultural superiority, major debates of the time period
Mexican-American War
US defeated Mexico, acquired the Mexican Cession, led to debates over slavery in this newly acquired territory (Wilmot Proviso)
Nativist Movement
Discrimination against immigrants (notably Irish and Germans), heavily anti-Catholic, sought to limit power of immigrants (Know-Nothing Party)
Abolitionists
Minority in the north; used fierce arguments (Garrison's Liberator), helping slaves escape (Underground RR), and violence (Nat Turner, John Brown at Harpers Ferry)
Slavery as a Positive Good
Argument used by John C. Calhoun and many in the South to justify slavery
Compromise of 1850
Compromise over Mexican Cession land, 5 parts: Pop Sov. In Mexican Cession; Fugitive Slave Law; abolition of slave trade in DC; California is a free state; TX paid $
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Reversed the MO Compromise, instituted Pop Sov. In Kansas and Nebraska; led to conflict - "Bleeding Kansas"
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Declared African Americans were NOT citizens; slaves were property and could not be taken away; Congress could NOT regulate slavery in territories
Republican Party
Emerged as a sectional party in the North and Midwest; sought to keep slavery from expanding (free-soil) - as seen in Lincoln's election in 1860
Emancipation Proclamation
Changed the purpose of the Civil War; allowed African Americans to fight in the Union Army; Kept Europe from aiding the South
13th Amendment
Abolished slavery; led to the rise of sharecropping in the south
Radical Republicans
Sought to change racial and cultural attitudes of the south
14th Amendment
Granted citizenship to all born in the US (aimed at African Americans, overturned Dred Scott), provided equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
Provided suffrage for all adult MALES; divided the Women's Rights Movement
Waning
To decrease, Reconstruction ended in part due to the North's waning resolve