14 terms

Period 6 Flashcards (1865 - 1898)

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Why 1865 - 1898 was chosen as the dates for period 6
1865 begins with the end of the Civil War and 1898 marks the beginning of the Spanish-American War
Gilded Age
Coin termed by Mark Twain; period from 1870s - 1890s, businesses grew at a rapid rate and many problems lied below perceived prosperity
Social Darwinism
Charles Darwin's ideas applied to humans, "survival of the fittest." Used by wealthy to justify their position in life
Labor Unions
Knights of Labor - skilled and unskilled; AFL - skilled labor only; sought to improve working conditions and increase pay
"New South"
Idea that the south should industrialize after the Civil War. Despite calls for industrialization, sharecropping and tenant farming persisted in the South
Sharecropping
Persisted in the South (especially for African Americans.) They had to give a share of their crops to plantation owners. Way for southerners to get around the 13th amendment.
Mechanized Agriculture
Using machines in farming to increase farm production; displaced many farmers; farmers created organizations to resist corporate power (Grange)
People's (Populist) Party
Created in response to the growth of corporate power; called for political reform (election of senators, secret ballot) and increased government involvement in economy
Political Machines
Appealed to immigrants and urban poor; provided services in exchange for support. Think Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall
Settlement Houses (Notably Jane Addams' Hull House)
Helped immigrants adjust to American life. Focused on providing education and other skills for women, immigrants, and children
Decimation of the buffalo
Buffalo almost became extinct due to westward expansion and over hunting of buffalo (buffalo hide); impacted Native Americans
Plessy v. Ferguson
Established the doctrine of "separate but equal." Upheld Jim Crow laws in the South, led to increased discrimination against African Americans; later overturned by Brown v. Board.
Social Gospel
Protestant Church Movement that sought to improve the conditions of cities
Assimilation of Native Americans
Process of making Natives "American"; Dawes Act - assimilated through cutting hair, changing tribal identities, providing individual land plots