A state of organ hypoperfusion with resultant cellular dysfunction and
● Mechanisms may involve decreased circulating volume, decreased cardiac
output, and vasodilation, sometimes with shunting of blood to bypass
capillary exchange beds.
● Symptoms include altered mental status, tachycardia, hypotension, and
● Diagnosis is clinical, including BP measurement and sometimes markers
of tissue hypoperfusion (eg, blood lactate, base deficit).
● Treatment is with fluid resuscitation, including blood products if
necessary, correction of the underlying disorder, and sometimes