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retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds-urea, creatinine, and uric acid- in the blood; also called uremia
abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
diminished capacity to form and pass urine, resulting in inefficient excretion of the end products of metabolism
polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
Inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys
vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)
disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter
accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especially the testes and associated structures
developmental anomaly in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or, in extreme cases, on the perineum
stenosis or narrowing of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis
measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra
endoscopy of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies for tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps
endoscopy of the kidney(s) using a specialized, three-channel endoscope that enables visualization of the kidney
endoscopy of the urethra using a specialized endoscope, typically for lithotripsy or TURP
computed tomography (CT)
imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
procedure that assesses volume and pressure in the bladder at various stages of filling using saline and a contrast medium introduced into the bladder through a catheter
intravenous pyelography (IVP)
radiographic examination of the kidneys, and urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium; also called excretory urography (EU)
kidney, ureter, bladder(KUB) radiography
radiographic examination to determine the location, size, and shape of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic cavity and to identify abnormalities of the urinary system
voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)
radiological examination of the bladder and urethra performed before, during, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
medical procedure used to filter toxic substances from the patient's bloodstream, such as excess electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes
method of removing waste substances from the blood by shunting it from the body, passing it through an artificial kidney machine where it is filtered, and then returning the dialyzed blood to the patient's body
removal of toxic substances from the body by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution
transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
surgical procedure that involves inserting a resectoscope into the urethra to "chip away" at the prostate gland to remove the obstruction and flushing out the chips and sending them for analysis to detect possible evidence of cancer
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