Soci Ch.7

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Terms in this set (...)

colonialism
the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations
dependency theory
-a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones

-social-conflict approach
-global poverty came from colonialism moving wealth from countries to others, making some nations rich and others poor
-causes of poverty = neocolonialism
-rich countries are part of the problem
global stratification
patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole
modernization theory
-a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
-emerged in the 50's

-structural functional approach
-global poverty came about from the world being poor and then some countries developed industrial tech., which created affluence
-main causes of poverty = traditional culture and lack of tech.
solution=rich countries
multinational corporation
a very large business that operates in many countries
neocolonialism
a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations
high income countries
-the nations (72) with the highest overall standard of living
-per capita gross domestic product (GDP) >12 000$
-23 % of people enjoy 78% of worlds wealth
middle income countries
-nations (70) with a standard of living above average for the world as a whole
-GDP is >12 000$ <2500$
-make up 61% of humanity, use 21% of income
low income countries
-53, nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor
-GDP is >2500$
-17% of humanity, with 1% of income
advantages of "income" view over "world" view
1) focuses on economic development rather than capitalists or socialists
2) gives a better picture of relative economic development of various countries , doesn't lump all low income nations to "Third World"
relative poverty
-some people lack resources that others take for granted
-exists in every society, regardless of rich or poor
absolute poverty
-lack or resources that is life-threatening
-generally, mostly in low-income countries
-70% are women
5 types of slavery
1) chattel slavery
2) slavery imposed by the state
3) child slavery
4) debt bondage
5) servile forms of marriage

*also human trafficking
Explanations for Global Poverty
1) Lack of Technology
2) Large Population Growth
3) Cultural patterns -> traditional
4) social stratification (unequal spread of wealth)
5) Gender Inequality
6) Global power relationships
2 theories for the unequal distribution of the world's wealth and power:
1) modernization theory
2) dependency theory
Rostow's Stages of Modernization
1) Traditional stage
2) Takeoff stage
3) Drive to technological maturity
4) High mass consumption
The roles of rich nations:
1) Controlling population
2) Increasing food production
3) Introducing industrial technology
4) Providing foreign aid
Wallerstein's 3 factors of dependency of poor nations on the rich:
1) Narrow, export-oriented economies --> poor nations produce few crops for export, and rich countries purchase raw materials cheaply to factories, so poor countries do not develop industries of their own
2) Lack of industrial capacity --> with no industrial base, poor nations rely on rich to buy their inexpensive materials (british made indians grow cotton, but couldn't use it themselves)
3) Foreign debt --> unequal trading patterns plunged poor nations into debt to core nations
modernization theory claims...
-rich nations can help the poor by providing technologies and foreign aid
critics of modernization theory claim...
-rich nations do little to help the poor
-because rich nations control the global economy, many poor nations struggle to support their people and cannot follow a path to development
Immanuel Wallerstein's 3 categories of nations:
1) Core - high income countries, home to national corporations
2) Semiperiphery - middle income countries, with ties to core nations
3) Periphery - low income countries, provide low-cost labor and a vast market for industrial products
dependency theory claims...
-export-orientated economies, a lack of industrial capacity and foreign debt make poor countries dependent on rich, and prevent their economic development
-radical reform of the entire world economy is needed so that it operates in the interest of the majority of people
critics of dependency theory claim...
-it overlooks the tenfold increase in global wealth since 1950 and the fact that the world's poorest countries have weak ties to rich countries
-rich nations are not responsible for cultural patterns and political contribution that block economic development in poor nations
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