Chapter 13 KBAT
Terms in this set (70)
The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.
An area deliniated by the us beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
Central Business District (CBD)
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
Combined statistical area (CSA)
In the U.S., 2 or more contiguous core based statistical areas tied together by commuting patterns.
Concentric zone model
A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.
Core based statistical area (CBSA)
In the United States, the combination of all metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas.
Council of government
A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States.
the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Metropolitan statistical area
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Micropolitan statistical area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Primary census statistical area
all of the combined statistical areas plus all the remaining mentropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Rush (or Peak) hour
The four consecutive 15 minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
Social area analysis
Statistical analysis used to identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life style live within an urban area.
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
In the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs.
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
the urban area that is not suburban; generally, the older or original city that is surrounded by newer suburbs
City established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures.
Consolidated metropolitan statistical area
An area in the US with two or more adjacent metropolitan areas with overlapping commuting patterns.
Cities in Europe that were mostly developed during the Medieval Period and that retain many of the same characteristics such as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and high walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack.
Person who has left the inner city and moved to outlying suburbs or rural areas.
Cities that arose during the Middle Ages and that actually represent a time of relative stagnation in urban growth. This system fostered a dependent relationship between wealthy landowners and peasants who worked their land, providing very little alternative economic opportunities.
mini edge city that is connected to another city by beltways or highways
Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas.
A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources.
a center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country
Fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools
urban area around the CBD; typically poorer and more run down in the US and other long-developed states; typically more rich upscale in less-developed states.
Inner City Decay
Those parts of large urban areas that lose significant portions of their populations as a result of change in industry or migration to suburbs. Because of these changes, the inner city loses its tax base and becomes a center of poverty.
found in the Muslim regions; owe their structure to their religious beliefs; contain mosques, open-air markets, courtyards surrounded by walls, limiting foot traffic in residential neighborhoods.
Latin American City
Large plaza in center with church (tallest building) as you go out from plaza it was grid roads. The further out, less wealthy it gets. "the spine": main transportation into city (large road). wealthy downtown and along spine. poorest on outer edge, called the "Flavelas"
Cities that developed in Europe during the Medieval Period and that contain such unique features as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and high walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack.
A giant urban area that includes surrounding cities and suburbs
An extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.
Outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
Gaps in the myelin sheath of the axons of peripheral neruons. Action potentials can 'hump' from node to node, thus increasing the speed of conduction (saltatory conduction).
housing maintained as result of the alternative to demolishing houses.
site in which dwellings are dispersed throughout the city rather than clustered in a large project.
A subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. Many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
The study of the physical form and structure of urban places
Urban Realms Model
a simplified description of urban land use, especially descriptive of the modern North American city. it features a number of dispersed, peripheral centers of dynamic commercial and industrial activity linked by sophisticated urban transportation networks.
The process occurring in some urban areas experiencing inner city decay that usually involves the construction of new shopping districts, entertainment venues, and cultural attractions to entice young urban professionals back into the cities where nightlife and culture are more accessible.
Zone of transition
an area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD.
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
Describe the problems of "defining" a city and some of the potential solutions.
A city is defined by three characteristics large size, high density, and social heterogeneous people. 1.) where does it end where does it begin 2.) Many people live in suburbs 3.) urban and rural settlements hard to define
Contrast European and North American cities in terms of:
o CBD functions and landscape
o suburban growth patterns (greenbelts vs. sprawl)
- The CBD of Europe consists of many low rise buildings but in NA they are usually sky scrapers.
- Most poor people in Europe live in the suburbs, while in North America the poorer people live in the Inner-city
-In Europe greenbelts are rings of undeveloped are surrounding the CBD while North America just has patches of green areas.
Explain the growth of suburbs in terms of:
- social and cultural views
- developments in transportation
- current economic changes
- Transportation in suburbs has changed a ton. It has gone from riding trolleys and buses, to driving your own car.
-Most people in the Suburbs have similar social views depending on where they are.
Differentiate between models of internal city structure:
- Concentric zone (Burgess model)
- Sector model (Hoyt model)
- Multiple nuclei model (Harris and Ullman)
-In the concentric model, the city and surrounding areas are in rings
- Sector models have spines or spokes that extend outward from the central business areas
-The multiple nuclei model the city has more than one CBD and more sections than the other models
Describe the elements and their relationships in the post-modern city in terms of the following:
- "galactic city"
- "edge city"
- Suburbanization of CBD functions
- New Urbanism
- Galatic City is a mini edge city that is connected to another city by beltways or highways.
- An edge city is a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
- New urbanism is the spread of urbanization to different places
Describe a typical city in an LDC and
-explain the influence of development on it
A typical city in an LDC usually has very poor conditions, not very many services, and very poor people.
List and evaluate the problems of the inner-city vs. suburbs.
- In the inner city, many people are poor and can't afford services that are available in the suburbs. They may also have squatter settlements. These settlements are illegal and contain mainly immigrants.
Explain and illustrate important models dealing with the urban hierarchy
Important models include the Concentric model, the Sector mode, and the Multiple Nuclei Model. They all describe how people and industries are distributed in a city or area.
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
A city which is greater than two times the next largest city in a nation (or contains over one-third of a nation's population). The primate city is usually very expressive of the national culture and often the capital city.