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A&P 1 chapter 10

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cardiac muscle
Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart
smooth muscle
Involuntary, non striated muscle that controls movement of internal organs
skeltal muscle
striated, voluntary, fornd attached to bones
muscle fiber
(multinucleated), One single muscle tissue cell. Has its own components that make a cell.
the actions of muscles
1.pull 2 bony points closer together
2. acts as a sphincter
3. pull on skin
endomysium
fine areolar connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber
muscle fascicle
Bundle of muscle fibers bound together by a connective tissue sheath.
tendons
connect muscle to bone
aponeurosis
tendon sheet
muscle fiber
A single long cylindrical muscle cell that contains many nuclei
sacro
flesh
sarcolemma
the plasma membrane sheath enveloping a muscle fiber
sarcoplasm
the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber
transverse tubule system
(T tubules), ...is continuous with the sarcolemma - invaginates perpendicular to sarcomlemma
myofibrils
Micorsopic, fiber-like structures that occupy most cytoplasm in skeletal muscle cells
thick myofilaments
made of several hundred myosin molecules; shaped like a golf club
thin myofilaments
filament composed of actin, troponin and tropomyosin
sarcoplasm reticulum
Specialized from of Endoplasmic reticulum, stores Calcium Ions
terminal cisternae
enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounding the transverse tubules, which store calcium for release at the start of muscle contraction
triad
complex of three units in a muscle fiber made of T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisterns on both sides of it
Ca2+
release and sequestration
sacromeres
the smallest contractile unit of muscle: extends from one z disc to the next
M line
(M=middle), line of protein myomesin that holds adjacent thick filaments together
Z lines
boundary between adjacent sacromeres.
Actin
thin filaments
tropomysosin
The regulatory protein blocking myosin-biding sites on the thin filament while a muscle is at rest
troponin
(binds Ca2+), moves tropomyosin aside & exposes myosin binding sites when Ca+ is released
thick filaments
myosin
cross bridges
myosin head, which connects thick filaments and thin filaments during a contraction
power stroke
pivoting of myosin heads attached to actin
sliding filament theory
theory that actin filaments slide toward each other during muscle contraction, while the myosin filaments are still
nerve impulse (motor)
action potential
neuromuscular junction
the junction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies
ach
enables muscle action, learning, and memory
motor end plate
the flattened end of a motor neuron that transmits neural impulses to a muscle
rigor mortis
muscular stiffening that begins 2 to 4 hours after death and last for about 4 days
AChE
acetyl cholinesterase
isotonic contractions
muscle contraction that results in limb movement(muscle length changes)
isometric contractions
(no muscle length changes), "same measurement"; tension in the muscles increases; the muscle is unable to shorten; EX: pushing against a wall
CP
creatine phosphate
creatine kinase
enzyme makes creatine phosphate + ADP into ATP
aerobic metabolism
METABOLISM THAT CAN PROCEED ONLY IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN.
glycolysis
breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid+2ATP production.
cori cycle
lactic acid converted to pyruvic acid in the liver
intercalated discs
Rings that provide a strong connection between cardiac muscle cells, to prevent tears and leaks in the heart.
smooth muscle
calmodulin
dense bodies
electron-dense portions of smooth muscle which thin filaments bind.