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cardiac muscle

Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart

smooth muscle

Involuntary, non striated muscle that controls movement of internal organs

skeltal muscle

striated, voluntary, fornd attached to bones

muscle fiber

(multinucleated), One single muscle tissue cell. Has its own components that make a cell.

the actions of muscles

1.pull 2 bony points closer together
2. acts as a sphincter
3. pull on skin


fine areolar connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber

muscle fascicle

Bundle of muscle fibers bound together by a connective tissue sheath.


connect muscle to bone


tendon sheet

muscle fiber

A single long cylindrical muscle cell that contains many nuclei




the plasma membrane sheath enveloping a muscle fiber


the cytoplasm of a striated muscle fiber

transverse tubule system

(T tubules), continuous with the sarcolemma - invaginates perpendicular to sarcomlemma


Micorsopic, fiber-like structures that occupy most cytoplasm in skeletal muscle cells

thick myofilaments

made of several hundred myosin molecules; shaped like a golf club

thin myofilaments

filament composed of actin, troponin and tropomyosin

sarcoplasm reticulum

Specialized from of Endoplasmic reticulum, stores Calcium Ions

terminal cisternae

enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounding the transverse tubules, which store calcium for release at the start of muscle contraction


complex of three units in a muscle fiber made of T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisterns on both sides of it


release and sequestration


the smallest contractile unit of muscle: extends from one z disc to the next

M line

(M=middle), line of protein myomesin that holds adjacent thick filaments together

Z lines

boundary between adjacent sacromeres.


thin filaments


The regulatory protein blocking myosin-biding sites on the thin filament while a muscle is at rest


(binds Ca2+), moves tropomyosin aside & exposes myosin binding sites when Ca+ is released

thick filaments


cross bridges

myosin head, which connects thick filaments and thin filaments during a contraction

power stroke

pivoting of myosin heads attached to actin

sliding filament theory

theory that actin filaments slide toward each other during muscle contraction, while the myosin filaments are still

nerve impulse (motor)

action potential

neuromuscular junction

the junction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies


enables muscle action, learning, and memory

motor end plate

the flattened end of a motor neuron that transmits neural impulses to a muscle

rigor mortis

muscular stiffening that begins 2 to 4 hours after death and last for about 4 days


acetyl cholinesterase

isotonic contractions

muscle contraction that results in limb movement(muscle length changes)

isometric contractions

(no muscle length changes), "same measurement"; tension in the muscles increases; the muscle is unable to shorten; EX: pushing against a wall


creatine phosphate

creatine kinase

enzyme makes creatine phosphate + ADP into ATP

aerobic metabolism



breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid+2ATP production.

cori cycle

lactic acid converted to pyruvic acid in the liver

intercalated discs

Rings that provide a strong connection between cardiac muscle cells, to prevent tears and leaks in the heart.

smooth muscle


dense bodies

electron-dense portions of smooth muscle which thin filaments bind.

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