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location on Earth

can be described using latitude and longitude lines

Line of Latitude

lines that run parallel to the equator's plane;

measuring Line of Latitude

are measured as an angle from the equator of the Earth (0°) to the North Pole (90° North) or to the South Pole (90° South

Line of Longitude

reference lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole.

measuring Line of Longitude

are measured as an angle from the Prime Meridian (0°) to 180° East or to 180° West

Prime Meridian

marks the point of 0° longitude; divides the Eastern and Western Hemispheres


marks the point of 0° latitude ; divides the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

map scale

shows the relationship between a unit of length on a map and the corresponding length on the ground

tppes of map scale

verbal scale, graphic scale, representative fraction scale

verbal scale

uses words to express the relationship between the actual size of an area and its size as shown on a map

graphic scale

uses a graphic or image to express the relationship between the actual size of an area and its size as shown on a map.

representative fraction scale

uses a fraction to express the relationship between the actual size of an area and its size as shown on a map.

Time zones

are organized around the Prime Meridian which marks the starting point at 0°;

seven continents

Africa, Asia, Antarctica, Australia, Europe, North America, South America

four Oceans

Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean


- almost completely covered in ice

Physical Features

play an important role in the geography of an area eg such as rivers, mountains, and deserts


-Nile River, Sahara Desert


- Himalayas, Ganges River, Yellow River


- Volga River, Danube River, Rhine River, Seine River, Thames River, Alps, Ural Mountains

Middle East -

Tigris River, Euphrates River

North America

- Mississippi River , Rocky Mountains, Great Plains

South America

- Andes Mountains, Amazon River

Tennessee Rivers

Tennesse River, Cumberland river, clinch river, holston river, obion river, duck river, missippi river

Physical Regions of Tennessee

gulf coastal plain, highland rim, cumberland plateau, unaka mountains, valley and ridge, central basin

Geographic factors

affect human history; Historical events are shaped by geographic features like mountains, deserts, and water

factors that affect cultural development

are climate, location, topography, water resources, and natural resources

climate affecting cultural development

People build their homes and grow food differently in dry, hot regions than in cooler, wet regions; Sudden changes in climate bring such historical events as floods, droughts, and famine.

Location affecting cultural development

affects how the culture/history develops ; affects what areas of a region get settled first eg settle close to water first; Isolated islands have less cultural and historical influences than a land-locked country

Topography affecting cultural development

Mountains and deserts also give natural barriers to other cultures; mountains, valleys, and deserts affect where people settle and how they travel


is the physical layout of a region

water affecting cultural development

allows for transportation, trading and exchanging of cultural ideas and objects.; cultures settle near water

natural resources affecting cultural development

people grow and create different products based on the natural resources they have; affect how a culture survives and thrives.

Regional characteristics

play an important role in an area's development; eg mountain ranges and water sources, for example, can affect whether people can travel and raise crops easily; eg Extreme temperatures can determine the kinds of clothes they wear and the kinds of homes they build.

Middle East Regional location

located in southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa

Middle East Regional countries

Asian countries - Iran, Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Egypt

Middle East Regional Regional characteristics

mostly desert; arid or semi-arid, with hot, dry summers and cool winters.

Middle East resource

65% of the world's oil reserves, in the states bordering the Persian Gulf.

Middle East people

90% are Muslims

oldest civilizations in Middle East

were in the valleys of the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers

Middle East Inventions

Alphabets, law codes, and cities

Religions started in the Middle East

monotheistic religions=Judaism, Christianity, Islam began here

Latin America Regional characteristics

region is varied, - mountains, rainforests, farmland, and beaches

Latin America Region

Mexico, Central America, and South America

Latin America colonization

were colonies of Spain, Portugal, and France

Latin America Exports

- fruits, vegetables, coffee, cocoa, flowers, and sugar

Mexico Regional characteristics

several mountain ranges; lowlands, valleys, and canyons; almost 150 rivers, most of which flow into the Pacific Ocean

Central America location

narrow strip of land that connects North and South America.

Central America Regional characteristics

mountainous; active volcanoes; large populations in the highlands

Fertile farmlands of Central America

lava has made the soil fertile for farming in the highland; this has led to a large populations in the highlands

South America Regional characteristics

Angel Falls, the Amazon, Andes, Atacama

South America resources

- mineral, including gold, silver, copper, and oil

Angel Falls

- the highest waterfall

the Amazon river

- largest river

Andes mountain

- longest mountain range


the driest desert in the world

colonization of south america

80 million native; Spanish and Portuguese conquerors and settlers were few in number but superior in military skills and weaponry; native populations were killed by epidemic diseases brought by the conquerors

native populations of south america

the great Aztec, Mayan, and Inca

Europe Regional characteristics

many peninsulas and islands, center of great cultural and economic achievement


second-smallest continent, with the third-largest population of all the continents; western one-fifth of the Eurasian landmass

Alps mountain

cuts across the center of south of Europe.

European achievement

Greeks and Romans civilizations; Renaissance; European age of exploration; great cultural and economic achievement

Greeks and Romans civilizations of Europe

contributions to philosophy, literature, fine art, and government

European Renaissance

period of great accomplishment for European artists and architects in the 14th century,

European age of exploration

voyages to new territories by European navigators in the 15th century,

Africa Regional characteristics

plateaus, few mountain ranges and a narrow coastal plain; is divided by the Sahara; Nile river

Egyptian empire

old African empire, 5,000 years ago

human life theory

belief that human life started in Africa 5 and 8 million years ago

North Africa

countries north of the Sahara eg large and populous nations such as Egypt and Algeria; Nile has helped to make these nations more developed than those countries to the southof the sahara

Sahara desert

world's largest desert; cuts through the northern half of Africa

sub-Saharan Africa

region in south of the Sahara; includes South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, and Namibia

Nile river

the longest river in the world; in africa

Africa's population

Most lives in the region south of the Sahara, known as sub-Saharan Africa.


movement of solids (soil, mud, rock, other particles) by the wind, water, and gravity


the disintegration of rocks, soils, and their minerals through natural, chemical, and biological processes

Plate Tectonics

the idea that the earth is made up of several plates; the movement and joining of these plates results in earthquakes and volcanoes.


caused by the shifting of Earth's plates. When two plates suddenly meet or shift apart, an eruption occurs.

Volcano area

Pacific "Ring of Fire", including the Hawaiian islands; where two plates meet, as in the northwestern U.S

Cause of Earthquakes

caused by forces in Earth's interior that constantly affect the surface.

Earthquakes occur when

the energy from the forces inside the earth is suddenly released


a large portion of air or large body of water moving in a certain direction.

oceans Currents

The oceans all have currents path that a body of water follows

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