82 terms

TCAP Physical Geography

location on Earth
can be described using latitude and longitude lines
Line of Latitude
lines that run parallel to the equator's plane;
measuring Line of Latitude
are measured as an angle from the equator of the Earth (0°) to the North Pole (90° North) or to the South Pole (90° South
Line of Longitude
reference lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole.
measuring Line of Longitude
are measured as an angle from the Prime Meridian (0°) to 180° East or to 180° West
Prime Meridian
marks the point of 0° longitude; divides the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
marks the point of 0° latitude ; divides the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
map scale
shows the relationship between a unit of length on a map and the corresponding length on the ground
tppes of map scale
verbal scale, graphic scale, representative fraction scale
verbal scale
uses words to express the relationship between the actual size of an area and its size as shown on a map
graphic scale
uses a graphic or image to express the relationship between the actual size of an area and its size as shown on a map.
representative fraction scale
uses a fraction to express the relationship between the actual size of an area and its size as shown on a map.
Time zones
are organized around the Prime Meridian which marks the starting point at 0°;
seven continents
Africa, Asia, Antarctica, Australia, Europe, North America, South America
four Oceans
Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean
- almost completely covered in ice
Physical Features
play an important role in the geography of an area eg such as rivers, mountains, and deserts
-Nile River, Sahara Desert
- Himalayas, Ganges River, Yellow River
- Volga River, Danube River, Rhine River, Seine River, Thames River, Alps, Ural Mountains
Middle East -
Tigris River, Euphrates River
North America
- Mississippi River , Rocky Mountains, Great Plains
South America
- Andes Mountains, Amazon River
Tennessee Rivers
Tennesse River, Cumberland river, clinch river, holston river, obion river, duck river, missippi river
Physical Regions of Tennessee
gulf coastal plain, highland rim, cumberland plateau, unaka mountains, valley and ridge, central basin
Geographic factors
affect human history; Historical events are shaped by geographic features like mountains, deserts, and water
factors that affect cultural development
are climate, location, topography, water resources, and natural resources
climate affecting cultural development
People build their homes and grow food differently in dry, hot regions than in cooler, wet regions; Sudden changes in climate bring such historical events as floods, droughts, and famine.
Location affecting cultural development
affects how the culture/history develops ; affects what areas of a region get settled first eg settle close to water first; Isolated islands have less cultural and historical influences than a land-locked country
Topography affecting cultural development
Mountains and deserts also give natural barriers to other cultures; mountains, valleys, and deserts affect where people settle and how they travel
is the physical layout of a region
water affecting cultural development
allows for transportation, trading and exchanging of cultural ideas and objects.; cultures settle near water
natural resources affecting cultural development
people grow and create different products based on the natural resources they have; affect how a culture survives and thrives.
Regional characteristics
play an important role in an area's development; eg mountain ranges and water sources, for example, can affect whether people can travel and raise crops easily; eg Extreme temperatures can determine the kinds of clothes they wear and the kinds of homes they build.
Middle East Regional location
located in southwestern Asia and northeastern Africa
Middle East Regional countries
Asian countries - Iran, Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Egypt
Middle East Regional Regional characteristics
mostly desert; arid or semi-arid, with hot, dry summers and cool winters.
Middle East resource
65% of the world's oil reserves, in the states bordering the Persian Gulf.
Middle East people
90% are Muslims
oldest civilizations in Middle East
were in the valleys of the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers
Middle East Inventions
Alphabets, law codes, and cities
Religions started in the Middle East
monotheistic religions=Judaism, Christianity, Islam began here
Latin America Regional characteristics
region is varied, - mountains, rainforests, farmland, and beaches
Latin America Region
Mexico, Central America, and South America
Latin America colonization
were colonies of Spain, Portugal, and France
Latin America Exports
- fruits, vegetables, coffee, cocoa, flowers, and sugar
Mexico Regional characteristics
several mountain ranges; lowlands, valleys, and canyons; almost 150 rivers, most of which flow into the Pacific Ocean
Central America location
narrow strip of land that connects North and South America.
Central America Regional characteristics
mountainous; active volcanoes; large populations in the highlands
Fertile farmlands of Central America
lava has made the soil fertile for farming in the highland; this has led to a large populations in the highlands
South America Regional characteristics
Angel Falls, the Amazon, Andes, Atacama
South America resources
- mineral, including gold, silver, copper, and oil
Angel Falls
- the highest waterfall
the Amazon river
- largest river
Andes mountain
- longest mountain range
the driest desert in the world
colonization of south america
80 million native; Spanish and Portuguese conquerors and settlers were few in number but superior in military skills and weaponry; native populations were killed by epidemic diseases brought by the conquerors
native populations of south america
the great Aztec, Mayan, and Inca
Europe Regional characteristics
many peninsulas and islands, center of great cultural and economic achievement
second-smallest continent, with the third-largest population of all the continents; western one-fifth of the Eurasian landmass
Alps mountain
cuts across the center of south of Europe.
European achievement
Greeks and Romans civilizations; Renaissance; European age of exploration; great cultural and economic achievement
Greeks and Romans civilizations of Europe
contributions to philosophy, literature, fine art, and government
European Renaissance
period of great accomplishment for European artists and architects in the 14th century,
European age of exploration
voyages to new territories by European navigators in the 15th century,
Africa Regional characteristics
plateaus, few mountain ranges and a narrow coastal plain; is divided by the Sahara; Nile river
Egyptian empire
old African empire, 5,000 years ago
human life theory
belief that human life started in Africa 5 and 8 million years ago
North Africa
countries north of the Sahara eg large and populous nations such as Egypt and Algeria; Nile has helped to make these nations more developed than those countries to the southof the sahara
Sahara desert
world's largest desert; cuts through the northern half of Africa
sub-Saharan Africa
region in south of the Sahara; includes South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, and Namibia
Nile river
the longest river in the world; in africa
Africa's population
Most lives in the region south of the Sahara, known as sub-Saharan Africa.
movement of solids (soil, mud, rock, other particles) by the wind, water, and gravity
the disintegration of rocks, soils, and their minerals through natural, chemical, and biological processes
Plate Tectonics
the idea that the earth is made up of several plates; the movement and joining of these plates results in earthquakes and volcanoes.
caused by the shifting of Earth's plates. When two plates suddenly meet or shift apart, an eruption occurs.
Volcano area
Pacific "Ring of Fire", including the Hawaiian islands; where two plates meet, as in the northwestern U.S
Cause of Earthquakes
caused by forces in Earth's interior that constantly affect the surface.
Earthquakes occur when
the energy from the forces inside the earth is suddenly released
a large portion of air or large body of water moving in a certain direction.
oceans Currents
The oceans all have currents path that a body of water follows