measuring Line of Latitude
are measured as an angle from the equator of the Earth (0°) to the North Pole (90° North) or to the South Pole (90° South
measuring Line of Longitude
are measured as an angle from the Prime Meridian (0°) to 180° East or to 180° West
shows the relationship between a unit of length on a map and the corresponding length on the ground
uses words to express the relationship between the actual size of an area and its size as shown on a map
uses a graphic or image to express the relationship between the actual size of an area and its size as shown on a map.
representative fraction scale
uses a fraction to express the relationship between the actual size of an area and its size as shown on a map.
play an important role in the geography of an area eg such as rivers, mountains, and deserts
Tennesse River, Cumberland river, clinch river, holston river, obion river, duck river, missippi river
Physical Regions of Tennessee
gulf coastal plain, highland rim, cumberland plateau, unaka mountains, valley and ridge, central basin
affect human history; Historical events are shaped by geographic features like mountains, deserts, and water
factors that affect cultural development
are climate, location, topography, water resources, and natural resources
climate affecting cultural development
People build their homes and grow food differently in dry, hot regions than in cooler, wet regions; Sudden changes in climate bring such historical events as floods, droughts, and famine.
Location affecting cultural development
affects how the culture/history develops ; affects what areas of a region get settled first eg settle close to water first; Isolated islands have less cultural and historical influences than a land-locked country
Topography affecting cultural development
Mountains and deserts also give natural barriers to other cultures; mountains, valleys, and deserts affect where people settle and how they travel
water affecting cultural development
allows for transportation, trading and exchanging of cultural ideas and objects.; cultures settle near water
natural resources affecting cultural development
people grow and create different products based on the natural resources they have; affect how a culture survives and thrives.
play an important role in an area's development; eg mountain ranges and water sources, for example, can affect whether people can travel and raise crops easily; eg Extreme temperatures can determine the kinds of clothes they wear and the kinds of homes they build.
Middle East Regional countries
Asian countries - Iran, Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Egypt
Middle East Regional Regional characteristics
mostly desert; arid or semi-arid, with hot, dry summers and cool winters.
Latin America Regional characteristics
region is varied, - mountains, rainforests, farmland, and beaches
Mexico Regional characteristics
several mountain ranges; lowlands, valleys, and canyons; almost 150 rivers, most of which flow into the Pacific Ocean
Central America Regional characteristics
mountainous; active volcanoes; large populations in the highlands
Fertile farmlands of Central America
lava has made the soil fertile for farming in the highland; this has led to a large populations in the highlands
colonization of south america
80 million native; Spanish and Portuguese conquerors and settlers were few in number but superior in military skills and weaponry; native populations were killed by epidemic diseases brought by the conquerors
Europe Regional characteristics
many peninsulas and islands, center of great cultural and economic achievement
second-smallest continent, with the third-largest population of all the continents; western one-fifth of the Eurasian landmass
Greeks and Romans civilizations; Renaissance; European age of exploration; great cultural and economic achievement
Greeks and Romans civilizations of Europe
contributions to philosophy, literature, fine art, and government
period of great accomplishment for European artists and architects in the 14th century,
Africa Regional characteristics
plateaus, few mountain ranges and a narrow coastal plain; is divided by the Sahara; Nile river
countries north of the Sahara eg large and populous nations such as Egypt and Algeria; Nile has helped to make these nations more developed than those countries to the southof the sahara
region in south of the Sahara; includes South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, and Namibia
the disintegration of rocks, soils, and their minerals through natural, chemical, and biological processes
the idea that the earth is made up of several plates; the movement and joining of these plates results in earthquakes and volcanoes.
caused by the shifting of Earth's plates. When two plates suddenly meet or shift apart, an eruption occurs.
Pacific "Ring of Fire", including the Hawaiian islands; where two plates meet, as in the northwestern U.S