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Sociology Test # 3
Terms in this set (57)
power that people consider legitimate; as rightly exercised over them.
power that people do not accept as rightly exercised over them; also illegitimate power
a political entity that claims monopoly on the use of violence in some particular territory; commonly known as country.
authority based on custom
authority based on law or written rules and regulations
authority based on an individual's outstanding traits, which attract followers
routinization of charisma
refers to the transition of leadership from a charismatic leader to either a traditional or rational-legal authority
a form of democracy in which the eligible voters meet together to discuss issues and make their decisions
a form of democracy in which voters elect representatives to meet together to discuss issues and make decisions on their behalf. Citizens vote for those who represent them on a larger scale of government.
a form of government in which a small group of individuals holds power; the rule of the many by the few
Who is more likely to vote?
Whites and African Americans are more likely to vote than Asians and Latinos.
everyone has the same basic rights because they were born in the country
the people who are most likely to vote are older, more educated, affluent and employed. The more at stake people have the more likely they are to vote; females are more likely to vote.
voters feel betrayed by the political system and they are often hostile to the government. They are skeptical of politicians. (can lead to apathy)
voters can feel indifferent; many educated people with good incomes; feel like nothing change, there's not much difference between the parties.
the diffusion of power among many interest groups that prevents any single group from gaining control of the government.
a condition of lawlessness or political disorder caused by the absence or collapse of governmental authority
this is the group that consists of the top leaders of the largest corporations, the most powerful generals and admirals of the armed forces and certain elite politicians
people who influence legislation on behalf of their clients
a group of people who support a particular issue and who can be mobilized for political action
Thorstein Veblen's term for a change from the thrift, savings, and investments of the Protestant ethic to showing off wealth through spending and the display of possessions.
an economic system built around the private ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of profit, and market competition.
an economic system built around the public ownership of the means of production, central planning, and the distribution of goods without a profit motive.
a hybrid economic system in which the individual ownership of businesses is mixed with the state ownership of industries thought essential to the public welfare, such as the postal service, natural resources, the medical delivery system, and mass transportation
laissez faire capitalism
literally "hands off" capitalism, meaning that the government doesn't interfere in the market
the law of supply and demand
a type of economy in which human groups live off the land and have little or no surplus
system of producing and distributing goods and services
the view that as capitalist and socialist economic systems each adopt features of the other, a hybrid (or mixed) economic system will emerge
two or more people who consider themselves related by blood, marriage, or adoption
people who occupy the same housing unit
a family consisting of a husband, wife and children
a family in which relatives, such as the "older generation" or unmarried aunts and uncles, live with their parents and their children
family of orientation
the family in which a person grow up
family of procreation
the family formed when a couple's first child is born
the practice of marrying with one's own group
the practice of marrying outside of one's group
unmarried couples living together in a sexual relationship
one whose members were once part of other families. With Two divorced people who marry and each bring their children into a new family unit form a blended family.
a group's approved mating arrangements, usually marked by a ritual of some sort
empty nest syndrome
a feeling of loneliness when all the children have grown up and moved out of their parents home
African American families
Divorce and desertion are more common. Sharing scarce resources and "stretching kinship" are primary survival mechanisms. Least likely to be headed by married couples most likely to be headed by a woman.
Social class is more important that determining than is either being Latino or family's country of origin. Fathers play a strong role
Asian American families
more likely to use shame and guilt over ; family life is framed by such values as humanism, collectivist, self discipline, hierarchy, respect for the elders, moderation and obligation
Native American families
families more permissive with kids, avoid physical punishment; elders play active role in teaching and discipline.
One parent families
children from these families are more likely to have behavioral problems in school, to drop out of school, to get arrested, to have physical, emotional health problems and get divorced
People who cohabitate
are more likely to get divorced
employers use diplomas and degrees as sorting devices to determine who is eligible for a job. They depend on schools to weed out the incapable.
mandatory education laws
laws that require all children to attend school until a specified age or until they complete a minimum grade in school.
the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions
unintended beneficial consequences of people's actions
passing students on to the next level even though they have not mastered basic materials
a high school graduate who has difficulty with basic reading and math
the sorting of students into different programs on the basis of real or perceived abilities
Dysfunctions of Religion
1. War and Terrorism
2. Justification for Persecution
Functions of Religion
1. Emotional comfort 3. Social Solidarity
2. Questions of Ultimate Meaning 4. Guidelines for everyday life
a new or different religion, practices are at odds wirh
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