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Disorders of the Endocrine System- Nclex
Caring for clients
Terms in this set (55)
located in brain
condition brought about by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland in children. Observe for Hyperglycemia.
condition brought about by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland in Adults. Observe for Hyperglycemia.
Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors
SHE IS HAD= Sterility, Headache, Enlargement of visceral organs, Increased growth plate, Skeletal thickness, Hypertrophy of skin (increase growth of skin), Amenorrhea, Diminished vision. *Give medication with food to decrease GI upset (Bromocriptine).
Removal of Pituitary gland through nasal passage. Assess airway is priority. Call doctor of halo sign is present on the nasal dressing, indicates cerebrospinal fluid.
Posterior pituitary-lack of antidiuretic hormone. Dehydration, low BP, Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia.
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone
Excessive production of Vasopressin (ADH)- Cant urinate. low serum of Na, high urine Na. Put in fluid restriction.
located on neck, below larynx and anterior to the trachea.
lack of thyroid hormone. Adult-Myxedema; Infant- Cretinism
Signs and Symptoms of HYPOthyroidism
Fatigue, decreased temp,pulse, & bp., Weight Gain, Swelling in hands/feet, Hair loss, thickening of skin. *slow mental/physical function avoid cold, dry skin/hair.
Nursing care for HYPOthyroidism
Assess iodine level, high fiber in diet, keep in warm environment, Check pulse before giving Synthroid replacements. Call doctor if pulse is above 100 in adult or 120 in Infants.
Excessive thyroid hormone. Responsible for Metabolism. TSH-
increased production of thyroid hormone caused by toxic diffuse Goiter.
Signs and Symptoms of HYPERthyroidism
(one Thyroid at) A TIIIME- Atrial fibrillation, Tremors or nervousness, Increased heart rate and pulse pressure, Increased activity, Increased appetite and weight loss, Moist skin and sweating, Exophthalamus.
Multiple symptoms of hyperthyroidism due to Graves disease.
Treatment of Thyroid Storm
Assess airway and treat hypertensive crisis. Give antithyroid medication (PTU/methimazole. Lugols solution (given before surgery. Take with high ascorbic acid juice to help absorb with Straw.
Nursing Care for thyroid disorder
Keep trach set at bedside.
located in throat. Help regulate Calcium and Phosphorus.
Serum Calcium Level
lack of PTH (parathyroid hormone)-helps maintain bone density and nerve function. Give vitamin D to help absorb calcium.
Signs and Symptoms of HYPOparathyroidism
Decreased Calcium, increased phosphorus, Trousseau's sign (carpopedal spasms) with BP cuff, Chvostek sign (facial spasms) with finger tapping, seizures.
Overproduction of of parathormone- S/S: Increased Calcium, Decreased Phosphorus, muscle weakness, Osteoporosis, Bone pain, Fractures, Increased Urine Output, kidney stones. Tx: removal of parathyroid. Nursing Care: Trach Set, Assess respiratory distress.
lack of insulin production (Type 1) /resistant to insulin (Type 2)- causes Metabolic Acidosis
Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
Weight loss, Ketonuria, Polyphagia, Polyuria, Polydipsia, delayed wound healing, hyperglycemia.
Normal Glucose Range
NPO before test, positive for diabetes if 200 or greater after 2 hours of test. Fasting-positive if 140 or greater. HbA1c-test for compliance of glucose diet (normal range is 4%-6%).
Hot and Dry+ Sugar High
Cold and Clammy+ need some Candy,
Eat protein and Milk before bed.
Responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as epinephrine.
The glucocorticoid hormones
(such as cortisol) maintain sugar (glucose) control, decrease (suppress) immune response, and help the body respond to stress.
The mineralocorticoid hormones
(such as aldosterone) regulate sodium and potassium balance.
Helps regulate body's stress response, metabolism of food, emotional stability, immune response.
Androgens (male) and Estrogens (female)
Sex hormones-affect sexual development and sex drive.
potassium-sparing diuretic: lower aldosterone levels and lower blood pressure. Blocks production of Aldosterone.
Excessive production of aldosterone: increases reabsorption of ions and water in the kidney -- increasing blood volume and, therefore, increasing blood pressure.
Rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. It results in the release of too much epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones that control heart rate, metabolism, and blood pressure. May cause change in glucose levels.
Symptoms of Pheochromocytoma
High blood pressure, Increase Heart rate, Hyperglycemia, Diaphoresis, Tremor, pounding Headache.
Nursing Care for Pheochromocytoma
Avoid stress, Frequent bathing and rest breaks, Avoid Cold and stimulating foods.
Addison Disease Symptoms
Hyponatremia, Hyperkalemia, Hypogylcemia, dark pigmentation, decreased resistance to stress, fractures, alopecia, Weight loss, GI distress.
"Skinny" disease- caused by Long term use of steroids. Tx- prednisolone to decrease inflammation.
Addisonian Crisis Symptom
Severe Hypotension, Cyanosis, and Shock- Call doctor immediately.
"Fat" disease- Excessive secretion of cortisol.
Symptoms of Cushing Disease
Hypernatremia, Hypokalemia, Hyperglycemia, Prone to infections, Muscle wasting, Weakness, Edema, Hypertension, Hirsutism (facial hair), Moon face, Buffalo Hump, Osteoporosis.
surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands.
Treat high levels of prolactin in women can cause symptoms such as unwanted breast milk and missed periods and can cause difficulty becoming pregnant. -take with food.
Treats high levels of prolactin (pituitary glands) in women can cause symptoms such as unwanted breast milk and missed periods and can cause difficulty becoming pregnant.
FSH-Produced by pituitary gland, measured in both a man and a woman to determine why the couple can't become pregnant (infertility). Help determine whether male or female sex organs (testicles or ovaries) are functioning properly.
Hormones (FSH and LH) that stimulate the development of ovaries and testes.
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin
This is used for acromegaly. It is a non-hormonal drug that activates dopamine receptors to inhibit release of GH & prolactin. Can stimulate ovulation, so Birth Control pills should be backed up with propholatics. Aka bromocriptine
Cortisone, Prenisone,Fludrocortisone, Propylthioouracil (PTU), Methimazole, Lugol's solution, Lithium carbonate, Levothyroixine, Bromocriptine, Carbergoline
Glimepride,Glyburide, Glipizide, Metformin, Sitagliptin, Rosiglitazone, Acarbose.
Lispro (Humalog) with food, Regular insulin, NPH, Humulin, Ultra Lente, Lantus, Exubera.
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