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Muslim leader who defeated the Christian Crusaders. He captured Jerusalem in 1187

Thomas Beckett

Archbishop of Canterbury who was murdered by Henry II's men because a conflict over Henry's claim to try clergy in royal courts.

Thomas Aquinas

Writer who examined Christian teachings in the light of reason. Faith and reason he concluded exist in harmony. Both led to the same truth that God ruled over an orderly universe.


Italian poet who wrote about an imaginary journey into hell and purgatory where souls await forgiveness.

Fredrick II

Child of Henry and Constance who was raised in Sicily. He was bright and well educated. As Holy Roman Emperor he spent little time in Germany, but rather spent his time in Italy where he often clashed with Popes. This allowed German nobles to become increasingly independent


King of Spain from Aragon. He married Isabella and helped drive Muslims from Spain

Joan of Arc

A 17 year old peasant girl who claimed that God had sent her to save France. She led the French into battle against the English in the 100 Years War. She was captured and burned on a cross. Her death marked the turning point in the war. The French took the offensive and attacked English held castles. They eventually won back their land


Author of the Canterbury Tales, a story of a band of traveling pilgrims traveling to Thomas Beckets tomb


Queen of Spain who married Ferdinand of Aragon. Her marriage unified Spain. She was determined to bring religious as well as political unity to Spain. She ended the policy of toleration. She launched a brutal crusade against Jews and Muslims

Innocent III

Pope who claimed superiority over all other rulers. He excommunicated King John of England and French King Philip II. He launched a crusade against the Albigensians in southern France

Gregory VII

Controversial Pope who was determined to make the Church independent of secular rulers. He banned the practice of lay investitures. He excommunicated Henry IV

John Wycliffe

An Oxford professor in England, attacked Church corruption. He insisted the Bible, not the Church was the source of all Christian truth. He began to translate the Bible into English, so that people could read it themselves, rather than to rely on clergy

William the Conqueror

Duke of Normandy who claimed the English throne. He defeated Harold in the Battle of Hastings and took control of England. He had the Doomesday Book taken in 1086

Henry II

King of England who broadened the system of royal justice. He also started an early jury system. His feud with Thomas Becket, led to Becket's murder

Saint Louis

Grandson of Philip II. He persecuted heretics and Jews and led thousands of French knights in two wars against Muslims. He expanded royal courts, outlawed private wars and ended serfdom in his lands.

Jan Hus

Wycliffe's ideas spread to the Czech Republic where he called for reforms

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