Nationalism and Sectionalism
Terms in this set (50)
Era of Good Feelings
somewhat of a misnomer; serious issues divided the nation.
1. Emerging sectionalism (east, west and south)
2. Tariff issue (east and south opposed; west in favor)
3. Internal improvements (east and south opposed; west in favor)
4. BUS: west and south opposed; eastern bankers in favor
5. Sale of public lands (east opposed; west and south in favor)
6. Panic of 1819 caused western hostility toward eastern bankers.
7. Issue of slavery in Missouri created increased sectionalism (north
vs. south); resolved by Missouri Compromise of 1820
8. Republican party enjoying 1-party rule began developing factions eventually leading to the 2nd Party System in the 1830s.
-- Clay, Calhoun, Jackson, John Quincy Adams
James Monroe elected President in 1816
1. Continued Virginia dynasty (4 of first 5 U.S. presidents were Virginian; 32 of first 36 yrs)
2. Death of Federalist party resulted after the election.
a. Federalist liabilities
i. "Disloyalty" during the War of 1812
ii. Extremely sectional regarding the interests of New England
iii. Jefferson had adopted many of their most important ideas
(e.g. Hamilton's financial plan, expansion, loose construction in certain cases)
b. Ironically, Federalists reversed many of their initial positions
i. Originally nationalistic; now opposed to Republican nationalism
ii. Became strict constructionists especially regarding internal improvements
a term coined by a newspaper writer following Monroe on his 1817 inspection tour of military bases
lasted from 1817 to 1823 during the Monroe presidency. During the era, party rivalry diminished and a confident spirit of postwar nationalism pervaded the nation.
-elected President in 1816
-5th president, begins expansionism including Florida and Missouri, as well as reigning over the Era of Good Feelings
-his secretary of state was John Q. Adams
-4th Virginia Dynasty
-secretary of state before he was president
-hands-off president-didn't do much
-he became national folk hero because of the Battle of New Orleans, and he provided US with a source of pride
-he had not played a conspicuous role in national politics and he began later to pick up support in slave holding states
-he was portrayed as an authentic man of the people despite his substantial fortune in land and slaves
-he gets revenge: nasty campaign, new party formed-democratic party, high voter turnout, he had the highest percentage of popular vote of any candidate in the 19th century
-intended to purify and reform government
-he wanted to exterminate all of the Indians
-invades Spanish Florida chasing after Native Americans
-he says that Adams winning the election of 1824 was a "corrupt bargain"
swept through central and eastern Florida during the
First Seminole War (1816-1818).
a. Captured Spanish cities and deposed the Spanish Governor
(thus disobeying Monroe's orders)
b. Jackson executed 2 Amerindian chiefs and British supporters of Spain.
John Quincy Adams
-when he was president, he appointed Clay in a high position, secretary of state
-obstacles to successful presidency: political winds blowing against nationalistic programs because party recovering from depression, he refused to bow to public opinion and called for expansion of federal activity, new Congress under control men hostile to administration and favorable to Jackson
-his goals as president were to explore the west, fund education, and public improvements, but he was unable to meet these goals because politics were so rancid
-he refused to attend Jackson's inauguration
-his work in Congress would become his legacy
-accused of corrupt bargain
-was President Monroe's very successful secretary of state, who, after winning the election of 1824, had a very troubled and unsuccessful single term in the presidency.
-Jackson hated him
-ratified in 1821, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams gained a favorable western boundary of the Louisiana Territory to the Pacific. Also, the United States purchased Florida, but temporarily surrendered its claim to Spanish Texas.
-treaty that gave US Florida
-treaty with Spanish
Great American Desert
-The vast arid territory that included the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the Western Plateau. Known as this before 1860, they were the lands between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Coast.
-Steven S. Long said this was useless, but he was wrong
the first federally funded internal improvement project
-The construction of this 364-mile canal initiated the canal boom of the 1820s and 1830s
-was financed by the state of New York with public funds. Begun in 1817, it was completed in 1825 and was an immediate financial success
-connected New York and Atlantic to Great Lakes and rest of America so that's what made New York the big commercial capitol for American (new Orleans used to be that)
-cut transportation costs
-leads to canal boom which leads to money
United States politician who as governor of New York supported the project to build the Erie Canal
-developed Cotton Gin (earliest aid to agriculture)
Francis Cabot Lowell
-succeeded in memorizing the closely guarded industrial secret of how a power loom was constructed -Boston merchant who had an idea to combine spinning and weaving under one roof. He formed the Boston Associates. They built a textile mill in Massachusetts. Had all machines needed to turn raw cotton into cloth
-brought back textiles
-headed the Boston Associates, whose Waltham, Massachusetts, textile mills added mass production, a new dimension to the factory system
-went to England and found out how textile factories worked-memorized this and brought it back to America who started using it and made money
-got his supports to vote for Adams
-spokesperson of the American system (3 parts: protective tariff, second bank of the US, internal improvements)
-Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
-corrupt bargain with John Q. Adams
-ran for president multiple times without success, known for his American system, leader of the National Republican/Whig Party
-speaker of the house
-promotes recharter of the bank
-made the bank the election issue of 1832
-ran against Jackson in 1832
-head of House of Representatives
-becomes Secretary of State
-part of corrupt bargain
-promotes recharter of bank
-decided slave states vs free states
-the brainchild of Kentucky Congressman Henry Clay
-It involved a political trade-off: in return for eastern support for federal aid to railroad and canal construction, the West would support protective tariffs. This arrangement would stimulate manufacturing and a demand for raw materials, and increase the market for manufactured goods.
-made by Clay
1) Protective Tariff (manufacturing in America vs England)
2) Internal Improvements
3) National Bank
-fundamental basis is Hamilton
-Between 1819 and 1823 the United States suffered its first nationwide economic depression. The depression was caused by a fall in cotton prices and the contraction of credit. The panic led to demands for more democracy in government and hostility toward banks, as well as to a growing split within the Republican party.
-first national bank=Hamilton=happiness
-charter runs out for first national bank
-state banks lend too much money (banknotes)=unhappiness
-all this leads to this depression
-When Missouri applied for statehood in 1819, New York Congressman James Tallmadge introduced an amendment calling for the gradual abolition of slavery in Missouri. It failed to pass Congress, but it generated an angry debate between northern and southern leaders that raged for months.
-wanted Missouri to be free state
-In 1820, after angry debate in Congress, Missouri entered the Union as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state to preserve the balance of slave and free states. Also, slavery was banned from the remaining part of the Louisiana Territory north of 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude.
-Compromise worked out by Henry Clay in 1820: slavery would be prohibited in the Louisiana territory north of 36o30'; Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state, Maine would enter the Union as a free state.
-came out of Tallmadge Amendment
-appointed during Adam's midnight judges as chief of justice
-wanted to provoke a confrontation with the executive branch during the Marbury vs. Madison case
-chief justice from 1801-1835
-enhanced judicial power and used contract clause of the Constitution to limit the power of state legislatures
-he encouraged economic development, especially of state legislatures to interfere with the constitutionally protested right of individuals
-pro-strong central government
-promotes general welfare by encouraging economic growth and prosperity
-he's very anti-states rights
-his view of the relationship between the government and economy was to interpret and enforce the Constitution in a way that encouraged economic development
-always votes for federal power
Darmouth College v. Woodworth
-court was asked to rule whether the legislature of New Hampshire had the right to convert Dartmouth from a private college into a state university
-issue in the case: Webster argued for the college and against the state, contended that Darmouth's original charter of 1769 was a valid and irrevocable contract; whether the college Dartmouth would be private or state university
-significance of ruling: growth of the modern cooperation as a profit-making enterprise with only limited public responsibilities
-the Supreme Court ruled that a charter granted by a state was a contract and could not be canceled or altered without the consent of both parties. The ruling caused states to spell out the limitations of corporate charters in greater detail.
-private corporations are fully protected by contract clause-increases private business power and starts cooperate growth
-Dartmouth stayed private
McCulloch v. Maryland
-state of Maryland had levied a tax on the Baltimore branch of the Bank of America
-issue in the case: whether Congress had a right to establish a National Bank and whether a state had the power to tax or regulate an agency or institution created by Congress
-support of "implied powers": Marshall was pro-implied powers to establish a bank
-the Supreme Court ruled that the second Bank of the United States was constitutional, thus affirming the doctrine of implied powers. The case also determined that "the power to tax involves the power to destroy," thus states could not tax a federal agency like the bank.
Gibbons v. Ogden
-bolstered the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce
-issues in the case: a steamboat monopoly granted by the state of NY was challenged by a competing ferry service operating between NY and NJ
-significance of ruling: went a long way toward treating private interests engaged in furthering the transportation revolution from state interference
-the Supreme Court ruled that states can regulate commerce that begins and ends in its own territory (intrastate trade), but when the transaction involves crossing a state line (interstate commerce), Congress's constitutional authority to regulate interstate trade takes precedence.
-At the suggestion of Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, in 1823 President Monroe announced in this that the American continents were no longer open to colonization, and that the United States would look with disfavor on any attempt to extend European control over independent nations in the Western Hemisphere. The United States also pledged not to involve itself in the internal affairs of Europe.
-an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
-Grand Alliance with Russia, Prussians, and Holland (they dislike revolution)-leads to this
-John Q. Adams did 2 things:
1) stopped colonization in America
2) US no longer intervene with European affairs
John Q Adams Presidency
-Monroe endorsed him
-qualifications to be president: intelligent and high minded, stood for a nonpartisan nationalism
-type of leadership: could not survive the growth of the sectional and economic divisions foreshadowed by the Missouri Controversy and fall-out from the Panic of 1819
-not trusted because of corrupt bargain
Alexis de Tocqueville
-he recognized that the disappearance of inherited social ranks and clearly defined aristocracies or privileged groups was a radical feature of American society
-he recognized that America didn't have defined social classes
-didn't like slavery-predicted it would lead to something bigger (foreshadowed civil war)
-noted no social classes
-didn't view men and women equally
-included many reforms: free public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories, and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions.
-The concept of Jacksonian democracy glorified the equality of all adult white males—the common man. It disliked anything that smacked of special privilege and rejected the elitist view that only the proven "best" men should be chosen to manage public affairs.
Culture during Jackson Era
-fashion: all social classes wore the same thing
-the gap between rich and poor was increasing during this period of political and social democratization
-romanticism: appealed to the feelings and intuitions of ordinary people
-increase in literacy
-themes of books at the time: gothic horror
-common themes for theater: melodrama
-architecture: Greek style expanded
-Hudson River School-pictures of American nature
-less middle class
-standards for high profile professions went down
Election of 1824
All five candidates, including Calhoun were Republicans, showing that the Republican party was splintering, due to rival sectional components. Calhoun withdrew and ran for the vice presidency. Jackson won more popular and electoral votes than the other candidates but didn't manage to gain the majority needed Because Clay supported Adams, Adams became president
-Immediately after John Quincy Adams became President, he appointed Henry Clay as Secretary of State. Jacksonians were furious because all former Secretaries of State became Presidents. This occurred after the Election of 1824 when Andrew Jackson had the most electoral votes, but not majority. Then, Henry Clay (having the least of the electoral votes) gave them to John Q. Adams, giving him the majority and making him President. Jacksonians question whether John Q. Adams made Henry Clay Sec. of State for payback in giving his votes.
-In the controversial election of 1824, John Quincy Adams opened himself to the charge of having won the presidency by virtue of a "corrupt bargain" with Henry Clay. Employing his great influence in the House of Representatives, Clay swung the House vote for Adams for president. Adams then appointed Clay his secretary of state.
-John Q. Adams vs Clay (dropped) vs Jackson vs Crawford (gets a stroke)
-Jackson wins first round, but not by enough
-Clay who came in last and was dropped gets House of Representatives to vote for John Q. Adams
-John Q. Adams elected: Clay=new secretary of state
Election of 1828-"Revolution of 1828"
-running candidates for president were John Q. Adams and Andrew Jackson, there was an increased turnout of voters at this election. The large turnout proved that the common people now had the vote and the will to use it for their ends. The results of the election show that the political center of gravity was shifting away from the conservative seaboard East toward the emerging states across the mountains. The revolution was peaceful, achieved by ballots.
-Andrew Jackson defeated John Quincy Adams's bid for reelection to the presidency. The campaign was filled with personal attacks on both candidates, but the mudslinging turned out an unusually high number of voters.
-Dem. Party emerged
-rematch between John Q. Adams and Jackson-Jackson wins because everyone doesn't like John Q. Adams
-common man wins
Tariff of Abominations
-Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
-In 1828, Congress revised the protective tariff law by generally raising tariff rates. Anti-tariff southerners were appalled by this. Vice President John C. Calhoun was provoked to write the "Exposition and Protest"—a defense of the doctrine of nullification.
-this made South Carolina want to secede
-led to nullification crisis
-North liked it, South hated it
-Jackson supported it but no one thought he would
John C. Calhoun
-Jackson's first vice president, anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; he suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.a
-VP who spoke for the militant states' rights sentiment of the South
-spokesman for states rights insurgency in South Carolina
-South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
-VP for John Q. Adams and Jackson
-his wife was against Eaton and he got fired because Jackson supported Eaton
-a system that Andrew Jackson set up not long after his election into the presidency in 1828; it had already developed a strong hold in the industrial states such as New York and Pennsylvania; it gave the public offices to the political supporters of the campaign; the name came from Senator Marcy's remark in 1832, "to the victor belongs the spoils of the enemy; made politics a full time business.
-a term usually used derisively, identifies the practice of elected officials appointing to office loyal members of their own party. Jackson was accused of initiating this (which he called "rotation in office") when he was elected to the presidency in 1828.
-the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
-rotation in office
-Jackson hired close friends
-people didn't approve
-she was a wife of a guy in the cabinet and people accused her of being unfaithful
-Jackson defends her because it reminded him of the slanders against his wife
-She was snubbed by ladies in Jackson's family and Vice President Calhoun's wife. The President wanted to help her because his wife had been the object of many rumors.
Indian Removal Act
-act requiring Indians in the east to move westward
-President Jackson viewed Indians as savages who were incapable of self-government. He pursued a policy of removing Indians from the path of westward settlement. By 1840, most eastern tribes had been relocated to lands west of the Mississippi River.
-applies to all Indians
-A distinct community in its own territory, where the laws of Georgia had no force. Sequoyah created a written language for the Cherokees- a first in Native American history
-Cherokees were the #1 civilized nation
Trail of Tears
-defined the route of the tragic removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to Oklahoma under severe conditions in 1838
-Many died on this trail to Oklahoma after the Indian Removal Act of 1830 (4000 people died)
-In 1832, a South Carolina convention nullified the tariff of 1832. President Jackson responded by threatening the use of federal troops to compel South Carolina to obey federal law. Congressional leaders worked out the compromise tariff of 1833 calling for gradual reduction of tariff rates. South Carolina then withdrew its nullification ordinance, but defiantly nullified the Force Bill that had commissioned the use of federal troops.
-South Carolina angry over high tariffs
-threaten to nullify/secede
-leads to Force Bill
-authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. This was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary
-Jackson responds to South Carolina
-gets authority over military power to collect money
-leads to Compromise Tariff of 1833
Compromise of Tariff of 1833
-Henry Clay devised this which gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise.
-Clay gradually reduces tariff rates
-South Carolina doesn't nullify/secede
-the president of the second Bank of the United States during the Bank War in 1832. He was a competent administrator of the Bank's affairs, especially its regulating the availability of credit by controlling the lending policies of state banks.
-became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
-caused Panic of 1837
-triggered a panic-stock market crash
-he was proving the power of the bank to do reckless things
Jackson's Veto of Bank
-reasons: statements of principle, unconstitutional, violated the fundamental rights of people in a democratic society
-significance: message was first ever to use more than strictly constitutional arguments and to deal directly with social and economic issues; new party system-Whigs vs Democrats
Election of 1832
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
Roger B. Taney
-Jackson fired people who didn't agree
-this dude replaced those fired people
-stopped money from going to Bank of US, put in "Pet Banks"
-senate said what he was doing was unconstitutional, they refused to accept him as secretary of treasury, Jackson embarrassed
-Following his victory in the Bank War, President Jackson decided to withdraw government funds deposited in the Bank's vaults. Secretary of Treasury Roger Taney then redeposited the funds in several state banks
-were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds
-supported Clay's ideas
-Supported by northern industrialists and merchants (WEALTHIEST Americans). New Englanders, residents of mid-Atlantic and upper Mid Western States. Protestants of old Enlglish stock.
-Supported Clay's "American System." Government should increase its role in supported industry and economic development.
-Sought to reduce the "spoils system"
-Sought to use national government to solve societies problems (over states' rights issues)
-Evangelicals from Anti-Masonic party joined
-Opposed immorality, vice and crime, which some blamed on immigrants. Later supported moral reforms: prohibition of alcohol and abolition of slavery.
-wanted government to be in control
-supported Jackson's ideas
-Supported by the COMMON people-Southerners, Westerners and small farmers. Also urban workers that comprised the voting block for machine politicians in the Eastern cities.
-Opposed to "American System."
-Anti-monopoly-favored increased competition. Opposed the nation bank, high tariffs, and high land prices
-Favored "rotation in office"
-Believed federal government should not be involved in people's personal lives-limited government.
-STATE'S RIGHTS advocates. Feared strong central government. More strict interpretation of the Constitution. Heir to Jeffersonian principles.
-In 1836, President Jackson issued this to halt a speculative land mania fueled by the easy availability of paper currency issued by state banks. This required land purchasers to pay for public land in gold and silver. It abruptly halted the speculative boom.
-issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. This required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
-only gold/silver would be accepted for public land
Panic of 1837
-When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
-This was in part a consequence of President Jackson's specie circular. The panic passed quickly, but in 1839 falling cotton prices and state defaults on debts frightened investors, and a general economic depression that lasted until 1843 began.
-result of specie circular-no paper money
Martin Van Buren
-a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which he became the leader.
-second vice president for Jackson
Election of 1840
-the newly organized Whig party adopted the campaign tactics of the Jacksonians and elected William Henry Harrison as president. Like Jackson, Harrison was a popular military hero who concealed or ignored the issues. He, like Jackson, was presented to the voters as a common man.
-Harrison ran against Van Buren
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