162 terms

Essentials of the Reid Technique

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controlled environnment
an environment that is private and free from distractions
interrogation
an accusational interaction with a suspect, conducted in a controlled environment, designed to persuade the suspect to tell the truth
interview
a free flowing, nonaccusatory meeting or discussion used to gather information
nonaccusatory
not indicating wrongdoing; not blaming or accusing
case facts
information from a variety of sources that is used by an investigator to gain a solid background about a case before conducting an interview or interrogation
dependent corroboration
information withheld from the suspects and media that is used to verify a guilty person's confession
fact analysis
the ability to identify from factual information the probable motivation for a crime, unique access requirements, window of time during which the crime was committed, and propensity characteristics of the person who committed the crime
fact-giver
any person who provides information about a case
investigator
the person who actually conducts the interview and possible interrogation of a suspect
noncustodial interview
an interview conducted under circumstances where the subject is free to leave the room
observation room
a room adjoining the interview room that allows investigating officers to observe and hear the interview while the necessary privacy is maintainted
privacy
freedom from distractions, a place where the suspect feels able to confide in the investigator, usually when the investigator is alone with the suspect
reminders of consequences
verbal and visible signs that remind a suspect of possible negative effects that could result from telling the truth
assumption of a neutral position
an interviewing style wherein the investigator approaches each suspect from an emotionally detached perspective with no preconceived expectation of guilt or innocence
assumption of guilt
an interviewing style wherin the investigator approaches each suspect as if the person were guilty of the crime
assumption of innocence
an interviewing style wherein the investigator approaches each suspect as if the person were innocent of the crime
custodial suspect
suspect who is in police custody; this type of suspect must be read the Miranda warnings and must waive the right to remain silect and the right have a lawyer present before an interniew or interrogation can take place
formal interview
an interview that is conducted in a controlled envrironment, ideally one that is nonsupportive to the person being interviewed
informal interview
interview typically conducted at the scene of the crime or during a follow-up investigation that is restricted to seeking basic facts about the crime that the interviewee may possess
introductory statement
a statement made (1) to clearly identify the issue under investigation, (2) to establish the investigator's ojectivity concerning the suspect's thruthfulness or deception, and (3) to persuade the suspect that if he lies, his deception will be detected
Miranda v. Arizona
case held before the United States Supreme Court in 1966 resulting in a 5-4 decision mandating that custodial suspects must be informed of certain constitutional rights
rapport
a relationship marked by conformity
clarifying question
open-ended questions that (1) are deisgned to elicit further information within a section of the account, (2) seek an explanation for events, or (3) develop information about the subject's feelings or thoughts
direct question
usually closed questions asked to elicit a specific position or answer from the subject
evasive response
a response that does not offer a definitive answer to a direct question
follow-up question
a question that is specifically directed at some aspect of the subject's original response and is instrumental in clarifying a subject's behavior
forced silence
a technique used by investigators to encourage a full response to the intiial open question
hypothetical follow-up questions
a question asked by the investigator to clarify the subject's position when qualifiers are used by the subject in response
implied action phrase
phrases that require the listener to make assumptions about what probably happened
memory qualifier
word(s) that express uncertainty when a person is recalling past events
negative question
a question that expects agreement with an implication contained within the question
open question
a question that calls for a narrative response
qualified response
a response that contains words or phrases that decrease the level of personal commitment or confidence within the subject's response
tagging
a questioning error that involves the investigator asking a direct question and then continuing to talk, perhaps by suggestins possible responses to the question or clarifying the question
time-gap phrase
phrases that indicate omissions in the account of an event
adaptor behavior
putting the hands in contact with some part of the body
attitude
a predisposed expectation toward a situation or event; during an interview with a criminal investigator, it is based on the subject's knowledge of his guilt or innocence with respect to the issue under investigation
clipped words
a behavior symptom indicative of truthfulness where a response is delivered in staccato fashion, emphasizing each word.
deceptive response
a response that is associated with the greatest level of internal anxiety
erasure behavior
paralinguistic behavior that had the effect of "erasing" the implied connotation of the statement
estimation phrase
phrase that tells the investigator that the subject is providing an estimation, rather than an exact statement. these may be appropriately heard from truthful or deceptive subjects
evasive response
a response that implies innocence without stating it
generalization statement
one type of qualifying phrase used to respond truthfully but deceptively to a question about a particular point in time. these statements often begin with phrases such as "as a rule" or "generally"
grooming gestures
adaptor behaviors that involve, in some manner, the subject's appearance
hand shrug
an illustrator with the specific meaning "i don't know" or "i don't care." this behavior may involve one or both hands being slightly extended from the body with the palms turned upward
illustrating
moving the hands away from the body and gesturing
listing
using a response that is offered as a list of possibilities, indicating that the subject has anticipated the question and spent time formulating credible explanations, particularly if it occurs during the initial interview
lying by referral
a response based on an earlier communication in order to avoid lying
memory qualifier
another type of qualifying phrase that blames a poor memory in order to bend a response in the subject's favor
mutual gaze
maintained eye contact
noncontracted denial
a verbal behavior associated with rehearsed responses in which the subject does not use verb contractions when giving answers to questions
nonverbal channel
posture; arm and leg movements; eye contact; and facial expressions
omission qualifier
qualifying phrase indicating that the subject is omitting part of his answer within his response; "hardly ever," "not often"
omissive response
a response that may consist of a nonverbal response alone or a verbal answer that accepts physical responsibility for an act but denies criminal intentions
paralinguistic channel
characteristics of speech falling outside of the spoke word
personal gestures
a gesture, which may involve the hand coming in contact with the body, that reflects the subject's own unique nonverbal manner of relieving anxiety
personality
fairly rigid and inflexible traits that are not condition specific
protective or supporting gestures
a final category of adaptor behavior involving gestures that bring the hand in contact with the face
qualified response
phrase added to a response to weaken it
response latency
the length of time between the last word of the interviewer's question and the first word of the subject's response
statement against self-interest
statement that decreases anxiety by alerting the investigator to the true intent behind a statement
stop-and-start behavior
a significant paralinguistic behavior of deception, in which the subject begins a response in one direction but abruptly stops it and starts over again in a different direction
truthful response
a statement that reflects the truth and, therefore, does not cause any internal anxiety as a result of deception
verbal channel
word choice and arrangement of words to send a message
impertinence
reactions exhibiting anger and rudeness; insolence
range of normalcy
a "normal range" relative to emotional, mental, cognitive, and physical health
reticence
being silent or relatively uncommunicative except for a few brief comments
emotional offender
one who would predictably experience a considerable feeling of remorse, mental anguish, or compunction as a result of his offense
nonemotional offender
a person who ordinarily does not experience a troubled conscience as a result of committing a crime
behavioral pause
a period of intentional silence that follows the direct, positive confrontation and lasts about three to five seconds
direct, positive confrontation
starting the interrogtion with a direct statement indicating absolute certainty in the suspect's guilt
transition statement
statement that offers a reason for interrogation other than eliciting a confession
theme
a monologue presented by the interrogator in which reasons and excuses are offered that will serve to psychologically justify or minimize the moral seriousness of the suspect's criminal behavior
third-person theme
a real or fictitious event about the interrogator, friend, or other case depicting a similar type of crime and extenuating circumstances that led to that act
denial
a statement or action that contradicts or refuses to accept the truthfulness of an allegation
friendly/unfriendly act
act played out by one or two investigators that accentuates sympathetic characteristics after the suspect is verbally attacked, in order to get the suspect to truthfully answer questions about the case
interruption gesture
universally recognized social signal often employed by deceptive suspects to let a speaker know, "Hey, it's my turn to talk. I have something to say"
permission phrase
phrase used to ask permission to speak that may preface a denial
pleading phrase
other verbal statement that often precedes a deceptive denial such as "But honestly," "Please," or "I understand what you're saying, but..."
absolute declaration
a vehicle by which the investigator sidesteps the objection. it actually does not mean anything, but it creates the impression that the investigator is encouraged by the suspect's statement, which is the opposite effect from that which the suspect anticipated when he offered the objection
emotional objection
a type of objection. examples include "I'd be too scared [nervous, shy, etc] to do something like that," "I loved her," or "I like my job"
factual objection
a type of objection. examples include "I don't even own a gun," "I wasn't even there that day," or "I could never hurt anyone"
introductory phrase
phrase used as a prelude to voicing of an objection
moral objection
a type of objection. examples include "I wasn't brought up that way" and "A person who would do something like that is really sick"
objection
a statement that is proposed by the suspect as an excuse or reason why the accusation is false
psychological withdrawal
emotional detachment from a situation, including the tendency to abandon verbal efforts and avoid eye contact
rhetorical question
question posed that does not require a response, but is used to encourage the suspect to make internal decisions that either agree or disagree with the stated principle
visual aid
item referenced or produced in order to attract the suspect's visual attention toward the investigator's statements
manipulative crying
crying as a ploy or as a final, yet insincere, effort to gain sympathy
resignation
point at which the suspect is mentally debating whether or not to tell the truth
alternative question
a question which offers the suspect two incrimination choices concerning some aspect of the crime
detail question
a question that is based on the where, when, or how of an act or event pertinent to the crime under investigation, but yet is removed in point of time or place from the main occurrence itself
leading question
a question phrased in such a way as to expect agreement
negative supporting statement
statement that paints a disturbing picture of the suspect if the negative alternative is true
positive supporting statement
a statement discussing the desirable side of the alternative question designed to encourage the suspect to select that side
corroborative information
facts that would be known only by the guilty person
independent corroboration
information about a crime learned from the suspect's confession that is verified as true after the confession
oral confession
a confession that is expressed verbally
statement of reinforcement
statement that encourages the suspect to continue beyond the acceptance of an alternative and commit himself to a discussion of the details of the crime
witness's confirmatory questions
questions posed by a witness to have the suspect actually verbalize to the witness what has already been told to the investigator
personal history questions
questions calling for answers known only to the offender
reid's nine steps of interrogation
1.positive confrontation 2. theme development 3. handling denials 4. overcoming objections 5. gaining subject's attention 6. handling the subject's passive mood 7. presenting the alternative question 8. developing the verbal admission 9. written/recorded confession
an interview is: ___ and ___
non-accusatory; free-flowing
an interrogation is: ___ and ___
accusatory; structured
during an interview, ___ should be made after ___.
notes; each question
____ should not be made during an interrogation until after ___
notes; a confession
the purpose of an interrogation is ___
to learn the truth
fact analysis identifies: ___, ___, ___, and ___.
probable motivation; unique access requirements; time of crime; characteristics of perpetrator
interview the ___ suspect first, after the victim.
least likely
the principal psychological factor contributing to an interview or interrogation is ___.
privacy
the motivation for all deception is to avoid the ___ of the truth.
consequences
traits of an interviewer should include: (5)
patience; sincere curiosity; awareness of current legal rules & regulations; friendly & personable; enjoy talking to others
three interview approaches are:
assumption of innocence; assumption of guilt; neutral assumption
an interviewer should wear:
civilian clothes
an interviewer should sit ___ and ___ of the suspect.
four - four & half feet away; directly in front
any ___ suspect must be mirandized prior to even basic questions
custodial
statements that ___ arrest will ___ the ____ nature of the interview
threaten or insinuate; nullify; voluntary
a formal interview takes place in a ___ environment
controlled
an ___ statement greatly ____ behavior symptoms
introductory; increases
allow an ___ to tell her story ___ interruption
adult victim; without
____ questions invite ___ responses
open; narrative
forced silence ____ and can elicit ___.
increases stress; information
truthful accounts have an ___, a ____, and a ___.
introduction; main body; epilogue
characteristics of truthful accounts include: (3)
similar detail throughout; out of sequence; includes thoughts & emotions
characteristics of deceptive accounts include: (5)
varying levels of details; perfect chronology; no emotions; time gaps; implied action
use a ___ question in response to a subject's Qualified Response
hypothetical
True/False: Use negative questions
false
the recording of suspects behavior by John Reid began in ___ in ___.
1942; Chicago
the three channels of communication are:
verbal; non-verbal; paralinguistic
evaluate the ___ and ___ communication in the context of ___
non-verbal, paralinguistic; verbal
____ should not be confused with ____
an attitude; personality
the four types of responses made by a deceptive subject are:
truthful; omissive; evasive; deceptive
deceptive postures include: (4)
slouching, non-frontal alignment, retreating, crossing barrier
illustrators are more often associated with:
truthfulness
___ is a very difficult behavior to evaluate.
anger
the difference between the nervousness of an innocent subject and a guilty one is ___
duration
an investigator should not allow behavior analysis to outweigh ___ and ___
evidence; case facts
emotional offenders are often emotionally moved ___
by the investigator's words or actions
majority of ___ offenders possess ___ emotional traits
all; some
prior to beginning an ___ leave the suspect alone for ___
interrogation; five minutes
the first step of interogation in the Reid technique is the ____
direct confrontation
the second step of interogation in the Reid technique is
theme development
the third step of interogation in the Reid technique is
handling denials
the fourth step of interogation in the Reid technique is
overcoming objections
the fifth step of interogation in the Reid technique is
retaining the suspect's attention
the sixth step of interogation in the Reid technique is
handling the passive mood
the seventh step of interogation in the Reid technique is
presenting the alternative question
the eighth step of interogation in the Reid technique is
having the suspect relate details of the crime
the ninth step of interogation in the Reid technique is
converting an oral confession to writing
during an interview, if it is necessary for an observer to be in the room, he should sit where?
in back of and to the side of the suspect
if it is necessary for an interpreter to be present, he should sit where?
next to the investigator, but to the side
open question do not force....
...the subject to lie
specific denials are indicative of...
...deceptive responses
to be reliable indicators, behavioral changes should occur...
...immediately in response to questions, or simultaneously with the suspect's answers
"Many guilty suspects...must be convinced ___ before they decide to tell the truth"
that the truth is already known or will be established shortly
Objections should be ignored or indulged?
Indulged
What is an effective technique to get the suspect's attention when he is psychologically withdrawing from the investigation?
moving the investigator's chair closer to the suspect's
True/False: a suspect should be given an opportunity to "cry it out"
False
The alternative question must not: (3)
(1) mention legal charges; (2) promise leniency; (3) threaten inevitable consequences
What is the objective of Step 8?
To develop an admission into a legally acceptable and substantiated confession.
Two forms of a written confession are:
(1) Question & Answer; (2) Narrative
True/False: A confession does not mark the end of an investigation.
True