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energy of motion; particles are in constant motion and the amount of motion depends on this thing that they possess.
the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a sample of matter. it depends on the number of particles in a substance and the amount of energy each particle has.
movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature
cooling of a substance
it loses thermal energy, which causes its particles to move more slowly and its temperature to drop.
metal and sand
examples of substances that have a low specific heat because they require only small amounts of heat to cause their temperatures to rise.
change from the liquid state to the solid state. as the liquid cools, it loses thermal energy. see page 113.
the temperature at which a substance changes from the liquid state to the solid state.
process of a substance going from the solid state to the gas state without ever being in the liquid state.
an object gains thermal energy
when it changes from a solid to a liquid, or when it changes from a liquid to a gas
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