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Middle Grade Math 5
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Terms in this set (19)
Probability
Mean
The mean is the sum of the data divided by the number of items in the set of data.
Mode
The number that occurs most often in a set of data.
Median
The middle number in a set of numbers that are listed in order. To find the median of an even number, find the mean (average) of the two middle numbers.
Integers on the Number Line
A positive number is a number that is greater than 0. A negative number is a number that is less than 0.
Absolute Value
The absolute value of a number is its distance from 0 on the number line. The symbol for absolute value is | |
Example:
| -5 | = 5
| 3 | = 3
Addition of Integers with the Same Sign
Add the absolute values of the numbers. The sum has the same sign as the addends.
Example:
-4 + (-6)
Both numbers are negative. Add the absolute values, 4 and 6, to get 10. Use the negative sign.
So, -4 + (-6) = -10
Addition of Integers with Different Signs
The sum is in the direction of the number with the larger absolute value. Subtract the smaller absolute value from the larger to find out how far the sum is in that direction.
Example:
7 + (-9)
The numbers have different signs. Subtract the smaller absolute value, 7, from 9 to obtain 2. the number -9 has a larger absolute value than the number 7, so the answer is negative.
So, 7 + (-9) = -2
Subtraction of Integers
Add the opposite of the number being subtracted.
Example:
8-10
Change to 8 + (-10)
8 + (-10) = -2 So, 8-10 = -2
-10 -7
Change to -10 + (-7)
-10 + (-7) = -17 So, -10 -7 = -17
Multiplication of Integers
The product of two numbers with the same sign is positive.
Example:
3 x 2 = 6
-4 x (-6) = 24
The product of two numbers with different signs is negative.
Example:
5 x (-7) = -35
Division of Integers
The rules for finding the quotient of two integers match the rules for finding the product.
Solving 1-Step Equations
To solve an equation, you "undo" operations until the variable is alone on one side of the equation.
Solving 2-Step Equations
To "undo" the operations, you reverse the original order of operations.
The Coordinate Plane
The x-y coordinate plane is based on two number lines. The horizontal line is the x-axis, and vertical line is the y-axis.
Example:
A = (4, 4)
B = (-3, -3)
C = (3, -6)
D = (-5, 2)
Defining and Comparing Rational Numbers
Rational numbers are numbers that can be written as a ratio of two integers.
Computing with Rational Numbers
Solving Equations with Rational Numbers
Square Roots
To square a number, you multiply it by itself. Square root of a number is the inverse of squaring the number.
The Pythagorean Theorem
The hypotenuse of a right triangle is the side opposite the right angle and is the longest side.
The other two sides are called legs.
In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs.
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