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Terms in this set (58)
subject received the action instead of performing it
learning strategy: Krashen hypothesizes that language instruction results in the
creation of a mental monitor through which the learner filters spoken and written output. The monitor aids
learners in achieving accuracy, but may hinder the development of fluency. The ideal is a balance where
the student has opportunities for unrestricted fluency and for using the monitor to "edit" and develop
The skills involved in everyday communication - listening, speaking, carrying on basic
conversation, understanding speakers and getting one's basic needs met.
The skills that are needed to succeed in the academic classroom, including problem
solving, inferring, analyzing,
synthesizing, and predicting. They go beyond the BICS, demanding much greater competence in the language.
Students learn best when exposed to samples of
the target language that are at or just above the student's current level of acquisition of the language. Teachers
can ensure that the language used in the classroom is comprehensible by
evaluating the students on the Stages of Language Acquisition.
Low Affective Filter:
Students are best able to absorb and mentally process the language input they receive
when they are in an environment where they are relaxed and their
anxiety level is low. The teacher can provide this by making the classroom a warm, supportive place where students feel free to take risks with language.
degree of formality
branch of linguistics (internal structure of words) language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonations and stresses, or implied context.
Example: treating irregular as a regular on (go--> goed)
emphasizes learning to communicate: focus is on meaningful communication not structure, use not usage. In this approach, students are given tasks to accomplish using language, instead of studying the language.
no background knowledge given
reading assessment that allows teacher to evaluate deviations from actual text during oral reading. Determines how a reader is decoding and processing printed words and using them to construct meaning: strat to decode and comprehend text
teacher judges overall communicative effectiveness of students written work: evaluate writers ability to communicate ideas rather than assess mechanical (grammar)
Steps towards reading for information
1. ask specific questions to clarify and extend meaning of texts: inferring, verifying meaning in texts
2. determining fact from opinion
3. determining relevance of information
learns best when physically active using movement to reinforce memory and comprehension
Sheltered approach to ELL instruction (SEP)
used in content classes to provide additional EL support: ELL acquire academic English as they learn academic content. Development of communicative language skills is offered in tandem with SEP and is not a fundamental elements of this approach
Views language first as social communication, which gradually promotes both language itself and cognition.
A person who begins to learn a second language after the onset of puberty...
will likely find language learning more difficult and depend more o repetition
Affective strategies (to lower affective filter)
Lower your anxiety, take your emotional temperature
Asking questions, cooperating with others, empathizing with others
A strategy used by 2nd language learners to compensate for lack of proficiency: preserving some features of their first language (or L1), or overgeneralizing target language rules in speaking or writing the target language and creating innovations
Krashen & Terrell: Students can improve vocal through meaningful interaction/meaningful context
Willig & Lee's 4 developmental stages
1) Pre-production stage
2) Early production stage
3) The speech emergence stage
4) The intermediate fluency stage
James Asher TPR (total physical response)
introduces new language through a series of commands to physically enact an event. The student responds to the
commands with action. Research on this strategy shows that more efficient
learning with fuller student involvement occurs when students actually
move than when they do not. For beginning students, an advantage of TPR is that students are not required
to make oral responses until they have achieved and demonstrated full comprehension through physical actions.
Language Experience Approach: Encourages spoken responses from LEP students after they are exposed to a variety of first-hand, sensory experiences.Helps develop reading and writing skills by using their ideas and language
Content-based Instruction (sheltered instruction) Integrates L2 acquisition and the basic content areas math, social studies, literature
HOw long does is take LEP to learn academic language
Chamot & O Malley Cognitive academic language learning approach helps intermediate and advanced students understand and retain content area material while they are improving their English language skills.
Whole language approach
Primary strategy is LEA (language experience approach), develops all 4 language skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening)
Carrell & Eisterhold schemas must be activated through activating background knowledge
each group is assigned 1 reading or part of a reading which further requires them to work with other groups to combine their respective parts to make sense of the whole reading
acquiring a 2nd language for a specific reason, such as a job
acquiring a second language to fulfill a wish to communicate within a different culture
Bailey (facilitative [helpful] anxiety)
Anxiety that compels an individual to stay on task not all anxiety is debilitative, some can be positive
process of becoming accustomed to the customs, language practices, and environment of a new culture affected by the learner's desire and ability to become a part of the dominant culture
Schumann's model of acculturation
The degree to which a learner acculturates to the target language group will control the degree to which he acquires the L2
Schumann's social elements that affect acculturation process
the L1 and L2 groups view each with mutual respect, have optimistic attitudes, and are compatible both groups wish for the primary group to assimilate into the culture both groups agree to share social services and conveniences. The L1 group wants to remain in the area beyond a temporary status
Ways to learn idioms
Grouping them according to types of language use- translating from native language into English- create original idioms- using visuals
Empty language (perfunctory [daily routine] speech)
has little meaning but is important is social exchanges
Educational level of ELLS parents..
has a great influence on literacy development
Language achievement tests -
Unit exams- final exams (relate directly to a specific curriculum or course of study)
TOFEL, NYSITELL, NYSESLAT
Diagnostic language tests
Identify individual students' strength and weaknesses in language (administered by speed therapists/psychologists)
negative attitude of an examiner towards a certain language/culture
Test bias/norming bias
excluding ELLs from school populate to obtain norm results
A fair way to administer tests to ELLs
Administer practice tests
Bottom-up processing of listening
listener analyzes the language to find out the intended meaning of the message.
Top-down processing of listening
Relies on listeners' bank of prior knowledge or global expectations. Involves prediction based on background knowledge
Familiarity with the topic, cultural knowledge and previous experience with a field
people's knowledge of discourse forms: text types, rhetorical conversations, and structional organization of prose
Content and formal schemata
help listeners in comprehension
Trying to understand all of the facts and information (for writing a summary/listening to a lecture)
Listening to overall content of a long-text (watching a film or play)
Language analysis tasks
Language for perception to analyze selected aspects of both language structure and language use. (comprehension is secondary and emphasis is on aural perception)
Language use tasks
Language for comprehension to get information and use it communicatively
Krashen and Terrell Natural Approach
Students are introduced to new vocal through different experiences
A good way to start developing comprehension skills?
Explicit instruction in sounding out words
The closer the phonologies of L1 and L2...
the greater the literacy development in L2
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