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exam 3

the best descriptive term for the resident biota is


resident biota is absent form the


virulence factors include

toxins, enzymes, capsules

the specific action of hemolysinsis to

damage red blood cells

the ______ is the time that lapses between encounter with a pathogen and the first symptom

period of incubation

a short period early in a disease that manifests with general malaise and achiness in the


a __________ is a passive animal transporter of pathogens

mechanical vector

an example of noncommunicatble infection is


a positive antibody test for HIV would be a _____________ of infection


the term infection refers to

microorganisms colonizing the body

nonspecific chemical defenses include

lysozyme, lactic acid and electrolytes of sweat, skin's acidic pH and fatty acid, stomach hydrochloric acid

acquired specific immunity involves the response of

B and T lymphocytes

the body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is

respiratory tract

the human body typically begins to be colonized by its normal biota

during, and immediately after birth

what is not a symptom of type I hypersensitivity

contact dermititis

the region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly varied from one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the

variable region

the blood cells that function in allergic reactions and inflammation, contain peroxidase and lysozyme and particularly target parasitic worms and fungi are


an infectious agent that originated from outside the body is called


what white blood cell comprises of 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages


an endotoxin is

indicative of gram negative organisms

which of the following is not a major organ that can be a target of immune complex deposition


the four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include what

redness, pain, warmth, swelling

what process provides many B cells and T cells that are activated against specific antigens?

clonal expansion

the leakage of vascular fluid into tissues is called


an example of artificial passive immunity would be

giving a person immune serum globulins to chicken pox virus after exposure to the disease

someone who is inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to other is a


an inanimate object that harbors and transmits a pathogen is a


the study of the frequency and distribution of a disease in a defined population is


what are four factors that may cause my normal flora to be different than yours

diet, birth entry, environment, exposure to disease

what is the first defensive cell to respond

PMN (neutrophil--phagocytosis)

what is the largest portal to the body

the respiratory portal is largest entry way
--biggest way is actually through the eyes not from breathing directly

which is most likely to get you sick: a low infectious dose or a high infectious dose?


why is the skin a good defense line

waterproof; has multiple layers; acidic; dry; keratinized

how do defensins work

they do not move, are in with cilia and they act as a spike to break cell wall which in turn causes lysis

what are the granulocytes

mast cells

what are the agranulocytes

B & T cells
NK cells

which cells contain histamine

basophils and eosinophils, mast cells

what are the three major lymph nodes

axillary, lingual, cervical

What organ filters blood and looks for pathogens


Is inflammation a good or bad thing

when no bacteria is present, inflammation needs to be under control because eventually tissue damage will happen to healthy tissue
when bacteria is present, inflammation should be allowed for some time to help get bacteria under control

what are the stages of inflammation

injury/immediate, vascular reactions, edema/pus formation, resolution/scar formation

an example of a nonspecific chemical barrier to infection is

lysozyme in saliva

which nonspecific host defense is associated with the trachea

ciliary lining

which of the following blood cells function primarily as phagocytes


which of the following is not a lymphoid tissue

thyroid gland

what is included in GALT

peyer's patches

monocytes are _________ leukocytes that develop into _________

agranular, macrophages

an example of an exogenous pyrogen is


_____________ interferon is secreted by ________ and is involved in destroying viruses

alpha, NKC

In humans, B cells mature in the _____ and T cells mature in the ___________

bone marrow, thymus

small, simple molecules are _____ antigens


the cross-linkage of antigens by antibodies is known as


T ________ cells assist in the functions of certain B cells and other T cells


Tc cells are important in controlling

virus infections

which cells can serve as an antigen-presenting cell (APCs)

B cells
dendritic cells

a vaccine that contains part of virusesiscalled


widespread immunity that protects the population from the spread of disease is called

herd immunity

pollen is which type of allergen


b cells are responsible for which allergies

asthma and anaphylaxis

the contact with allergen that results in symptoms is called the

provocative dose

the direct, immediate cause of allergic symptoms is the action of

allergic mediators released from mast cells and basophils

theoretically, type ______ blood can be donated to all persons because it lacks __________

O, antigens

an example of a type III immune complex disease is

serum sickness

type II hypersensitivities are due to

complement-induced lysis of cells in the presence of antibodies

rheumatoid arthritis is an _____ that affects the ________

autoimmune disease, joints

which disease would be most similar to AIDS in its pathology

DiGeorge syndrome

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