How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

66 terms

microbiology

exam 3
STUDY
PLAY
the best descriptive term for the resident biota is
commensals
resident biota is absent form the
lungs
virulence factors include
toxins, enzymes, capsules
the specific action of hemolysinsis to
damage red blood cells
the ______ is the time that lapses between encounter with a pathogen and the first symptom
period of incubation
a short period early in a disease that manifests with general malaise and achiness in the
prodrome
a __________ is a passive animal transporter of pathogens
mechanical vector
an example of noncommunicatble infection is
tetanus
a positive antibody test for HIV would be a _____________ of infection
sign
the term infection refers to
microorganisms colonizing the body
nonspecific chemical defenses include
lysozyme, lactic acid and electrolytes of sweat, skin's acidic pH and fatty acid, stomach hydrochloric acid
acquired specific immunity involves the response of
B and T lymphocytes
the body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is
respiratory tract
the human body typically begins to be colonized by its normal biota
during, and immediately after birth
what is not a symptom of type I hypersensitivity
contact dermititis
the region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly varied from one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the
variable region
the blood cells that function in allergic reactions and inflammation, contain peroxidase and lysozyme and particularly target parasitic worms and fungi are
eosinophils
an infectious agent that originated from outside the body is called
exogenous
what white blood cell comprises of 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages
monocyte
an endotoxin is
indicative of gram negative organisms
which of the following is not a major organ that can be a target of immune complex deposition
brain
the four classic signs and symptoms of inflammation include what
redness, pain, warmth, swelling
what process provides many B cells and T cells that are activated against specific antigens?
clonal expansion
the leakage of vascular fluid into tissues is called
edema
an example of artificial passive immunity would be
giving a person immune serum globulins to chicken pox virus after exposure to the disease
someone who is inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to other is a
carrier
an inanimate object that harbors and transmits a pathogen is a
fomite
the study of the frequency and distribution of a disease in a defined population is
epidemiology
what are four factors that may cause my normal flora to be different than yours
diet, birth entry, environment, exposure to disease
what is the first defensive cell to respond
PMN (neutrophil--phagocytosis)
what is the largest portal to the body
the respiratory portal is largest entry way
--biggest way is actually through the eyes not from breathing directly
which is most likely to get you sick: a low infectious dose or a high infectious dose?
low
why is the skin a good defense line
waterproof; has multiple layers; acidic; dry; keratinized
how do defensins work
they do not move, are in with cilia and they act as a spike to break cell wall which in turn causes lysis
what are the granulocytes
neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils
mast cells
what are the agranulocytes
monocytes
B & T cells
NK cells
which cells contain histamine
basophils and eosinophils, mast cells
what are the three major lymph nodes
axillary, lingual, cervical
What organ filters blood and looks for pathogens
spleen
Is inflammation a good or bad thing
when no bacteria is present, inflammation needs to be under control because eventually tissue damage will happen to healthy tissue
when bacteria is present, inflammation should be allowed for some time to help get bacteria under control
what are the stages of inflammation
injury/immediate, vascular reactions, edema/pus formation, resolution/scar formation
an example of a nonspecific chemical barrier to infection is
lysozyme in saliva
which nonspecific host defense is associated with the trachea
ciliary lining
which of the following blood cells function primarily as phagocytes
neutrophils
which of the following is not a lymphoid tissue
thyroid gland
what is included in GALT
peyer's patches
monocytes are _________ leukocytes that develop into _________
agranular, macrophages
an example of an exogenous pyrogen is
endotoxin
_____________ interferon is secreted by ________ and is involved in destroying viruses
alpha, NKC
In humans, B cells mature in the _____ and T cells mature in the ___________
bone marrow, thymus
small, simple molecules are _____ antigens
poor
the cross-linkage of antigens by antibodies is known as
aggulation
T ________ cells assist in the functions of certain B cells and other T cells
helper
Tc cells are important in controlling
virus infections
which cells can serve as an antigen-presenting cell (APCs)
B cells
macrophages
dendritic cells
a vaccine that contains part of virusesiscalled
subunit
widespread immunity that protects the population from the spread of disease is called
herd immunity
pollen is which type of allergen
inhalant
b cells are responsible for which allergies
asthma and anaphylaxis
the contact with allergen that results in symptoms is called the
provocative dose
the direct, immediate cause of allergic symptoms is the action of
allergic mediators released from mast cells and basophils
theoretically, type ______ blood can be donated to all persons because it lacks __________
O, antigens
an example of a type III immune complex disease is
serum sickness
type II hypersensitivities are due to
complement-induced lysis of cells in the presence of antibodies
rheumatoid arthritis is an _____ that affects the ________
autoimmune disease, joints
which disease would be most similar to AIDS in its pathology
DiGeorge syndrome