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the ______ is the time that lapses between encounter with a pathogen and the first symptom
period of incubation
nonspecific chemical defenses include
lysozyme, lactic acid and electrolytes of sweat, skin's acidic pH and fatty acid, stomach hydrochloric acid
the body region where a ciliary escalator helps to sweep microbes trapped in mucus away from that body site is
the human body typically begins to be colonized by its normal biota
during, and immediately after birth
the region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly varied from one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the
the blood cells that function in allergic reactions and inflammation, contain peroxidase and lysozyme and particularly target parasitic worms and fungi are
what white blood cell comprises of 3-7% of circulating WBC's, are phagocytic and can migrate into body tissues to differentiate into macrophages
what process provides many B cells and T cells that are activated against specific antigens?
an example of artificial passive immunity would be
giving a person immune serum globulins to chicken pox virus after exposure to the disease
what are four factors that may cause my normal flora to be different than yours
diet, birth entry, environment, exposure to disease
what is the largest portal to the body
the respiratory portal is largest entry way
--biggest way is actually through the eyes not from breathing directly
how do defensins work
they do not move, are in with cilia and they act as a spike to break cell wall which in turn causes lysis
Is inflammation a good or bad thing
when no bacteria is present, inflammation needs to be under control because eventually tissue damage will happen to healthy tissue
when bacteria is present, inflammation should be allowed for some time to help get bacteria under control
what are the stages of inflammation
injury/immediate, vascular reactions, edema/pus formation, resolution/scar formation
the direct, immediate cause of allergic symptoms is the action of
allergic mediators released from mast cells and basophils
theoretically, type ______ blood can be donated to all persons because it lacks __________
type II hypersensitivities are due to
complement-induced lysis of cells in the presence of antibodies
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