66 terms

AP HUG CONCEPT LIST

STUDY
PLAY
Urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to uraban areas
social definition of urban area
What people think and believe about race have major social consequences
Physical definition of urban area
vibration; disturbance in the molecules of some kind of elastic medium (like air)
Legal definition of a city
A PA practices within the scope of practice of their supervising physician, it has to be delegated to them, not prohibited by law, and should flow from the usual and customary work.
Site and Situation
Site: Physical characteristics of a plac
Two components of urban location. Site refers to the local setting of the city and the situation is the regional setting or location. An example of site and situation is San Francisco. The original site of the Mexican settlement that became San Francisco was on a shallow cove on the eastern shore of a peninsula. The importance of its situation was that it drew on a waterborne traffic coming across the bay from other, smaller settlement.
Origin and evolution of cities
HIV = intracelullar parasite that uses host cells to reproduc
Genetic Diversity of Life
Colonial cities
Cities that were deliberately established or developed as administrative commercial centers by colonial or imperial powers.
Industrial era city
time period where ads grew because of urbanization, population increase, railroads and the first advertised product category was patent medicine. (1800-1875)
Auto dominated city
a city which has been designed with the large scale use of automobiles in mind rather than public transportation
Pull factors in cities
a factor that draws or attracts people to another location
The urban hierarchy
hamlet, village, town, city, mega city, world city
Rank Size Rule
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
World Cities
A group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
Linkages between world cities
...
Distribution of world cities
majority live in subtropics and coastal regions
Changes in the world's largest cities since 1800
climate change
Megalopolis
An extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.
Mega cities
a very large city characterized by both primacy and high centrality within its national economy.
Squatter Settlements
Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
Gateway Cities
cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas
Central Place Theory, Walter Christaller
1. The landscape is divided into noncompeteing market areas—complementary regions—where each individual urban center and its merchants have a sales monopoly
Range and Threshold
Extent of Market
Used to determine profitability in a market area analysis
Economic base of settlements
Settlement's distinctive economic structure derives from its basic and nonbasic industry
Multiplier effect
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
The Industrial city
90% of manufacturing in cities.
Role of Transportation
Key in recent development in past 2 centuries. Determine where residents live and businesses are
Decline of Industrial Cities
Deindustrialization definition
Sunbelt Cities
1945. After 1945 the warmer climate, lower taxes and economic opportunities in the south attracted many GI's and their families from Florida to California. By transferring tax dollars from the Northeast and Midwest to the South and West, military spending during the Cold War helped finance the shift of industry, people and political power. This cities led to the humongous growth of suburban areas. Also people from the 1970s moved to the these cities too.
migration within US typically to the South and Southeast (Atlanta, Dallas, Phoenix)
Process of deterioration and decline of cities
Middle class families move out of a neighborhood to newer housing father from he center and sell or rent their houses to lower income families.
Gentrification
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
Population Pyramids of City Neighborhoods
visual representation of the age and sex composition of a population graph
The Post-industrial City
Factory work is no longer needed
Festival Market Places and Tourism
Festival marketplaces were a leading downtown revitalization strategy in American cities during the 1970s and 1980s. The guiding principles are a mix of local tenants instead of chain stores, design of shop stalls and common areas to energize the space, and uncomplicated architectural ornament in order to highlight the goods
Urban Morphology
The study of the physical form and structure of urban places
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Sector Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Peripheral Model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Latin America Model
Created by Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford—found that Latin American cities blend traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene, combining radial sectors and concentric zones.
Street Patterns
Knowledge of street patterns and widths gives commanders and leaders a good idea of whether mounted mobility corridors in different zones can permit wheeled or tracked vehicles and facilitate command and control.
Impacts of auto dominated cities
transportation problems, also cause harm to the enviornment
Comparing models between US and Europe
...
More Developed Countries (MDC) and Least Developed Countries (LDC) differences
(MDC) also known as a relatively developed country, a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.(LDC) lowest country progression
Transit Oriented Development
A mixed-use residential or commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership
Annexation
The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.
Flagpole Annexation
the process of annexing a narrow strip that encloses a large block of unincorporated land
Competing municipalities
...
Trend towards regional agencies
Government, which has a lock on the delivery of a wide range of services, is not only a monopoly, but a particularly effective form of monopoly:

Government cannot go out of business. Every citizen of the United States, like it or not, is a customer for government services-and a new customer is born every eight seconds. Poorer Americans, especially, are customers for government services and cannot afford to go elsewhere.

Government controls revenue. If more money is needed to provide a given service, government can and will raise taxes to pay for it. While the private sector has to persuade people to make purchases, government simply takes dollars. General Motors would never close a plant if it could seize the assets of people who do not buy its cars.

Government is allowed to spend more than it takes in. While some states and cities are required by law to enact balanced budgets, most government entities are not-including the federal government. And even governments that by law must balance their budgets nevertheless avoid doing so by borrowing, deferring capital spending, and employing questionable bookkeeping devices. Private companies and families can only deficit-spend in the short term before going bankrupt; government thinks it can go into debt indefinitely.

Government delivers "essential services." Whenever reform-minded managers or elected officials exert pressure to reduce costs, status-quo managers can mount an effective defense by pointing to the essential nature of their task. A call for budget cuts in a municipal Department of Public Safety, for example, could be countered with the claim that the streets would be less safe. An attempt to slow the growth of education spending might be met with the challenge, "Aren't our kids worth a few extra dollars a month?" This is a strategy that resonates powerfully with the people, who have neither the time nor the inclination to scour budgets to see if savings are possible without cuts in service quality.
The City Beautiful Movement
Along with Beaux-Arts Classicism, BLANK revived the Enlightenment desire to plan rationally for the common good, while rejecting the laissez-faire individualism of the mid-19th century
Emphasis was on grand forma
Urban renewal
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
Smart Growth
Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
New Urbanism and Mixed-use development
Mixed-use development is—in a broad sense—any urban, suburban or village development, or even a single building, that blends a combination of residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or industrial uses, where those functions are physically and functionally integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections.[1][2] The term ("a mixed-use development") may also be used more specifically to refer to a mixed-use real estate development project—a building, complex of buildings, or district of a town or city that is developed for mixed-use by a private developer, (quasi-) governmental agency, or a combination thereof
Inner city challenges
inadequate job skill
Sprawl
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Bid-rent Curve
a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases. It states that different land users will compete with one another for land close to the city centre.
Density gradient
the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
Edge cities
A term introduced by American journalist Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the united states away from the central business district (CBD) toward the loci of economic activity at the urban fringe (extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, modern buildings, less than 30 years old)
Counter urbanization
net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Greenbelts
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Leap-frog Development
originally used in the context of economic growth theories and industrial-organization innovation studies with specific focus on competition among firms
Gated Communities
restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests
Peak Value Land Intersection
A peak land value intersection is the region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually located in the central business district of a town or city, and has the greatest density of transport links...
Creative class
group of workers in multiple industries united by the fact that creativity is central to their productive work
Underclass and Homeless
occur inside the city (for the most part)
Canadian urban issues
Canadian urban issues also include urban regulation and monitoring of land use
Suburban challenges
Society's pressure to become the ideal domestic
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