63 terms

The Heritage of the World Chapter 29

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Cold War
the period between the end of World War II and the collapse of the Soviet Union in which U.S. and Soviet relations were tense, seemingly moments way from actual war at any time during these years
containment
the American foreign policy strategy (beginning in 1947) for countering the communist threat and resisting the spread of Soviet influence
Truman Doctrine
the U.S.'s policy of support for "free people who are resisting attempted subjugation byarmed minorities or by outside pressures," by implication, anywhere in the world
Marshall Plan
the U.S. European Recovery Program whereby America provided extensive economic aid to the uropean satates, conditional only on their working together for their mutual benefit
Tito
the leader of communist Yugoslavia who freed his country from Soviet domination
Berlin Blockade
the incident in which the Soviets attempted to block the city of Berlin in order to drive out the Western powers
1948
the year when the Berlin Blockade ocurred
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
the mutual defense pact
Warsaw Pact
the mutual defense agreement among Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union
Balfour Declaration
the declaration that Britain favored establishing a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine
Herzl and Weizmann
two leaders of the Zionist movement
May 1948
the date when the Israel, Jewish state, was established
Korean War
the war between North and South Korea, in which the U.S. intervened to stop the spread of communism
Kruschev
the man who emerged as leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin's death; sought to reform the Soviet system but to ma intaine the dominance of the Communist Party
Suez Crisis
the incident in which Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal and Britain and France intervened, to no avail
Nasser
the Egyptian president who n atioanlized the Suez Canal
Polish Crisis
the event in whch the Polish prime minister died, its Communist Party refused to replace him with Moscow's nominee, and Gomuka emerged as the new leader of Poland
Hungarian Crisis
the event in which sympathy for the Poles in Budapest led to street fighting, Hungarian communists rebelled against the Soviets, and the Soviet Union invaded Hungary
Berlin Wall
the wall erected by the East Germans which divided Berlin in half
Cuban Missile Crisis
the event in which the Soviet union began supplying Cuba missiles and the U.S. blockaded Cubs
Castro
the communist leader of Cuba
Kennedy
the U.S. President during the Cuban Missile Crisis
Prague Spring
the period when the government of Czechoslovakia began to experiment with a more liberal communism
Dubcek
the Czech leader who began to experiment with a more liberal communism
Brezhnev Doctrine
the doctirne which asserted the right of the Soviet Union to intervene in domestic politics of communist countries
detente
the relaxation of tensions betwen the United States and Soviet Union that involved increased trade and reduced deployment of strategic arms
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
the evnt which tapped Soviet strength for ten years and demoralized the Soviet Union
1979
the year when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan
Pope John Paul II
the outspoken Polish opponent of communism who led the Catholic Church during the late twentieth century
Walesa
the leader of the Polish strikers who refused to negotiate through any government-controlled unions
Solidarity
the Polish trade union which successfully forced the Polish communist government to hold free elections
Reagan
the President who intensified Cold WAr rhetoric and increased U.S. military spending
Strategic Defense Initiative
Reagan's project which involved a high-technology space-based defense against nuclear attack
Indian National Congress
the organization founded by politically active Hindu Indans whith the goals of modernizing Indian life and liberalizing British policy
Gandhi
the leader of Indian nationalism who encouraged religious toleration and passive resistance to British rule
Muslim League
the organization founded by Muslim Indians which sought an independent Muslim nation
Jinnah
the leader of the Muslim League who sought a distinctly Muslim state
Algeria
the country that was the site of violent clashes between native Muslims and French settlers before it finally became independent
pied noirs
the term (meaning "black feet") which referred to the immigrants of European descent in Algeria
Fifth Republic
the French government created by Charles de Gaulle
Vietnam
the country that was the site of a communist takeover in the north
Ho Chi Minh
the nationalist leader of the Indochina Communist Party who declared the independence of Vietnam under the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
Ho Chi Minh's coalition of Vietnamese nationalists and comunists
Diem
the Vietnamese political leader who, with U.S. support, establihsed a Republic of Vietnam in the south
National Liberation Front
the movement founded witht he goals of overhtrowing Diem, infiying Vietnam, reforming the economy, and ousting the Americans
Viet Cong
the military arm of the National Liberation Front which was aided by the government of North Vietnam
1975
the year when Saigon feel to the Communists
Govrbachev
the Russian president who began the dramatic collase of the Sovet Empire and introduced perestroika and glasnost
perestroika
("restructuring") the means by which Govbachev wished to raise his country's standard of living
glasnost
"openness" Govrbachev's policy of opeaning the way for unprecedented public discussion and criticism of Soviet history and the Communist Party, in which censorship was relaxed and dissidents were released from prison
fall of the Berlin wall
the event which occurred in 1989, signifying the collapse of the Soveit Union
1989
the year when the Berlin wall fell
Czechoslovakia
the country that experienced revolutions after the fal of the Berlin wall
Havel
the man who became president of Czechoslovakia
Romania
the country which experienced a significantly violent revolution in 1989
Ceasescu
the Romanian president who was tried and shot during violent revolutions
Yeltsin
the president of the Russian Republic who succeeded Gorbachev
Commonweath of Independent States
the replacement for the Soviet Union after Gorbachev left office
Yugoslavia
the country which experienced conflict among ethnic groups during the late twentieth century
ethnic groups
the source of the tension in Yugoslavia
Milosevic
the nationalist leader in Serbia
ethnic cleansing
the policy by which the Serbs killed or forcibly removed many Bosnian Muslims
Sarajevo
the city where the NATO troops froced the Serbs to witdraw their artillery