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APUSH: Chapter 10
Census of 1790
effort that counted 4 million Americans
brilliant administrator and financial wizard whose career was plagued by doubts about his character and belief in popular government
Washington's secretary of state and the organizer of a political party opposed to Hamilton's policies
skillful politician-scholar who drafted the Bill of Rights and moved it through the First Congress
body organized by the Judiciary Act of 1789 and first headed by Jon Jay
Funding and assumption
Hamilton's aggressive financial policies of paying off all federal bonds and taking on all state debts
Bank of the United States
institution established by Hamilton to create a stable currency and bitterly opposed by states' rights advocates
a protest by poor western farmers that was firmly suppressed by Washington and Hamilton's army
Political party that believed in a strong government run by the wealthy, government aid to business, and a pro-British foreign policy
political party that believed in the common people, no government aid to business, and a pro-French foreign policy
secret code names for three French agents who attempted to extract bribes form American diplomats in 1797
Treaty of Greenville
agreement between the United States and Miami Indians that ceded much of Ohio and Indiana while recognizing a limited sovereignty for the Miamis
Alien and Sedition Acts
harsh and probably unconstitutional laws aimed at radical immigrants and Jeffersonian writers
Bill of Rights
ten constitutional amendments designed to protect American liberties
message telling America that it should avoid unnecessary foreign entanglements - a reflection of the foreign policy of its author (Washington)
What led Hamilton to promote the fiscal policies of funding and assumption?
the need to gain support of wealthy groups for the federal government
What guaranteed basic liberties and indicated some swing away from Federalist centralizing?
passage of the Bill of Rights
What led to the imposition of the first tariff in 1789 and the excise tax on whiskey in 1791?
the need for federal revenues to finance Hamilton's ambitious policies
What caused the Whiskey Rebellion?
Hamilton's excise tax on western farmers' products
What led to the formation of the first two American political parties?
clashes between Hamilton and Jefferson over fiscal policy and foreign affairs
What event created bitter divisions in America between anti-Revolution Federalists and pro-Revolution Republicans?
the French Revolution
What led Washington to support Jay's treaty?
danger of war with Britain
What document aroused Jeffersonian Republican outrage at the Washington administration's pro-British policies?
What event caused an undeclared war with France?
What caused the passage of the Alien Acts?
Federalist fear of radical French immigrants
official body designated to choose the President under the new Constitution, which in 1789 unanimously elected George Washington
constitutional office into which John Adams was sworn on April 30, 1789
cabinet office in Washington's administration headed by a brilliant young West Indian immigrant who distrusted the people
Funding at Par
Alexander Hamilton's policy of paying off all federal bonds at face value in order to strengthen the national credit
Hamilton's policy of having the federal government pay the financial obligations of the states
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments to the Constitution
political organizations not envisioned in the Constitution and considered dangerous to national unity by most of the Founding Fathers
political and social upheaval supported by most Americans during its moderate beginnings in 1789, but the cause of bitter divisions after it took a radical turn in 1792
agreement signed between two anti-British countries in 1778 that increasingly plagued American foreign policy in the 1790s
alliance of eight Indian nations led by Little Turtle that inflicted major defeats on American forces in the early 1790s
document signed in 1794 whose terms favoring Britain outraged Jeffersonian Republicans
nation with which the United States fought an undeclared war from 1798 to 1800
political theory on which Jefferson and Madison based their antifederalist declaring that the thirteen sovereign states had created the Constitution
the doctrine, proclaimed in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, that a state can block a federal law it considers unconstitutional
nation to which most Hamiltonian Federalists were sentimentally attached and which they favored in foreign policy
A key addition to the new federal government that had been demanded by many of the ratifying states was...
a written bill of rights to guarantee liberty
One immediate innovation not mentioned in the Constitution that was developed by George Washington's administration was...
The Bill of Rights is the name given to provisions whose actual form is...
the first ten amendments to the federal Constitution
Which of the following sets of rights was NOT included in the Bill of Rights...
rights to freedom of education and freedom to travel
The Ninth and Tenth Amendments partly reversed the federalist momentum of the Constitution by declaring that...
all rights not mentioned in the federal Constitution were retained by the states or by the people themselves
Hamilton's first financial policies were intended to...
fund the national debt and to have the federal government assume the debts owed by the states
The essential disagreement between Hamilton and Jefferson over the proposed Bank of the United States was...
whether the Constitution granted the federal government the power to establish such a bank
The first American political parties developed primarily out of...
the disagreement of Jefferson and his states' rights followers with Hamilton's economic policies
The Whiskey Rebellion was most significant because...
it showed that the new federal government would use force if necessary to uphold its authority
Regarding the French Revolution, most Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans believed that...
the violence was regrettable but necessary
Washingtons' foreign policy rested on the basic belief that...
it was in America's interest to stay neutral in all European wars
The US became involved in undeclared hostilities with France in 1797 because of...
American anger at attempted French bribery and the XYZ Affair
The Alien and Sedition Acts were aimed primarily at...
the Jeffersonians and their allegedly pro-French activities and ideas
Jefferson's Kentucky resolutions argued that...
the states had the right to nullify unconstitutional federal laws
Federalists essentially believed that...
there should be a strong central government controlled by the wealthy and well educated