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Census of 1790

effort that counted 4 million Americans

Alexander Hamilton

brilliant administrator and financial wizard whose career was plagued by doubts about his character and belief in popular government

Thomas Jefferson

Washington's secretary of state and the organizer of a political party opposed to Hamilton's policies

James Madison

skillful politician-scholar who drafted the Bill of Rights and moved it through the First Congress

Supreme Court

body organized by the Judiciary Act of 1789 and first headed by Jon Jay

Funding and assumption

Hamilton's aggressive financial policies of paying off all federal bonds and taking on all state debts

Bank of the United States

institution established by Hamilton to create a stable currency and bitterly opposed by states' rights advocates

Whiskey Rebellion

a protest by poor western farmers that was firmly suppressed by Washington and Hamilton's army


Political party that believed in a strong government run by the wealthy, government aid to business, and a pro-British foreign policy


political party that believed in the common people, no government aid to business, and a pro-French foreign policy


secret code names for three French agents who attempted to extract bribes form American diplomats in 1797

Treaty of Greenville

agreement between the United States and Miami Indians that ceded much of Ohio and Indiana while recognizing a limited sovereignty for the Miamis

Alien and Sedition Acts

harsh and probably unconstitutional laws aimed at radical immigrants and Jeffersonian writers

Bill of Rights

ten constitutional amendments designed to protect American liberties

Farewell Address

message telling America that it should avoid unnecessary foreign entanglements - a reflection of the foreign policy of its author (Washington)

What led Hamilton to promote the fiscal policies of funding and assumption?

the need to gain support of wealthy groups for the federal government

What guaranteed basic liberties and indicated some swing away from Federalist centralizing?

passage of the Bill of Rights

What led to the imposition of the first tariff in 1789 and the excise tax on whiskey in 1791?

the need for federal revenues to finance Hamilton's ambitious policies

What caused the Whiskey Rebellion?

Hamilton's excise tax on western farmers' products

What led to the formation of the first two American political parties?

clashes between Hamilton and Jefferson over fiscal policy and foreign affairs

What event created bitter divisions in America between anti-Revolution Federalists and pro-Revolution Republicans?

the French Revolution

What led Washington to support Jay's treaty?

danger of war with Britain

What document aroused Jeffersonian Republican outrage at the Washington administration's pro-British policies?

Jay's Treaty

What event caused an undeclared war with France?

XYZ Affair

What caused the passage of the Alien Acts?

Federalist fear of radical French immigrants

electoral college

official body designated to choose the President under the new Constitution, which in 1789 unanimously elected George Washington

vice president

constitutional office into which John Adams was sworn on April 30, 1789


cabinet office in Washington's administration headed by a brilliant young West Indian immigrant who distrusted the people

Funding at Par

Alexander Hamilton's policy of paying off all federal bonds at face value in order to strengthen the national credit


Hamilton's policy of having the federal government pay the financial obligations of the states

Bill of Rights

first ten amendments to the Constitution


political organizations not envisioned in the Constitution and considered dangerous to national unity by most of the Founding Fathers

French Revolution

political and social upheaval supported by most Americans during its moderate beginnings in 1789, but the cause of bitter divisions after it took a radical turn in 1792

Franco-American Alliance

agreement signed between two anti-British countries in 1778 that increasingly plagued American foreign policy in the 1790s

Miami Confederation

alliance of eight Indian nations led by Little Turtle that inflicted major defeats on American forces in the early 1790s

Jay's Treaty

document signed in 1794 whose terms favoring Britain outraged Jeffersonian Republicans


nation with which the United States fought an undeclared war from 1798 to 1800

compact theory

political theory on which Jefferson and Madison based their antifederalist declaring that the thirteen sovereign states had created the Constitution


the doctrine, proclaimed in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, that a state can block a federal law it considers unconstitutional


nation to which most Hamiltonian Federalists were sentimentally attached and which they favored in foreign policy

A key addition to the new federal government that had been demanded by many of the ratifying states was...

a written bill of rights to guarantee liberty

One immediate innovation not mentioned in the Constitution that was developed by George Washington's administration was...

the cabinet

The Bill of Rights is the name given to provisions whose actual form is...

the first ten amendments to the federal Constitution

Which of the following sets of rights was NOT included in the Bill of Rights...

rights to freedom of education and freedom to travel

The Ninth and Tenth Amendments partly reversed the federalist momentum of the Constitution by declaring that...

all rights not mentioned in the federal Constitution were retained by the states or by the people themselves

Hamilton's first financial policies were intended to...

fund the national debt and to have the federal government assume the debts owed by the states

The essential disagreement between Hamilton and Jefferson over the proposed Bank of the United States was...

whether the Constitution granted the federal government the power to establish such a bank

The first American political parties developed primarily out of...

the disagreement of Jefferson and his states' rights followers with Hamilton's economic policies

The Whiskey Rebellion was most significant because...

it showed that the new federal government would use force if necessary to uphold its authority

Regarding the French Revolution, most Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans believed that...

the violence was regrettable but necessary

Washingtons' foreign policy rested on the basic belief that...

it was in America's interest to stay neutral in all European wars

The US became involved in undeclared hostilities with France in 1797 because of...

American anger at attempted French bribery and the XYZ Affair

The Alien and Sedition Acts were aimed primarily at...

the Jeffersonians and their allegedly pro-French activities and ideas

Jefferson's Kentucky resolutions argued that...

the states had the right to nullify unconstitutional federal laws

Federalists essentially believed that...

there should be a strong central government controlled by the wealthy and well educated

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