Training and Development Final
Terms in this set (53)
Comparison between training and development
Focus Current Future
Use of good experience Low High
Goal Preparation for current job Preparation for changes
Participation Required Voluntary
Formal Education Programs:
o Off site and on site programs designed specifically for the companys employees
o Short courses offered by consultants or universities, executive MBA programs, and university programs
the practice of reimbursing employees costs for college and university courses and degree programs.
Leaderless group discussion:
a team of five to seven employees must work together to solve an assigned problem within a certain time period. The problem may involve buying and selling supplies, nominating a subordinate for an award, or assembling a product.
is a simulation of the administrative tasks of a manager's job. The exercise includes a variety of documents that may appear in the in basket on a manager's desk. The participant is asked to read the materials and decide how to respond to them. Responses might include delegating tasks, scheduling, meetings, writing replies, or completely ignoring the memo!
participants take the part or role of a manager or other employee. For example, an assessment center participant may be asked to take the role of a manager who has to give a negative performance review to a subordinate.
instrument designed to measure important factors in being a successful manager.
o Items that are measured include dealing with subordinates, acquiring resources, and creating a productive work climate.
process of measuring employees performance.
o Different approaches for measuring performance:
• Ranking employees
• Rating their work behaviors
• Rating the extent to which employees have desirable traits believed to be necessary for job success
360 degree feedback
: is a special version of the upward feedback process. In 360 degree feedback systems, employee's behaviors or skills are evaluated not only by subordinates but also by peers, customers, their boss, and themselves. The raters complete a questionnaire that rates the person on a number of different dimensions.
relationships, problems, demands, tasks, or other features that employees face in their jobs.
o A major assumption is that development is most likely to occur when there is a mismatch between the employee's skills and past experiences and the skills required for the job.
adding challenges or new responsibilities to an employee's current job.
providing employees with a series of job assignments in various functional areas of the company or movement among jobs in a single functional area or department.
is an experienced, productive senior employee who helps develop a less experienced employee. Most mentoring relationships develop informally as a result of interests or values shared by mentor and protégé.
a peer or manager who works with employees to motivate them, help them develop skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback.
Cross Cultural Preparation:
involves educating employees (expatriates) and their families who are to be sent to a foreign country.
people who work in a country other than their country of origin.
Implications of Cultural Dimensions for Training Design
Cultural Dimensions Implications
Individualism Culture high in individualism expects participation in exercises and questioning to be determined by status.
Uncertainty Avoidance Culture high in uncertainty avoidance expects formal instructional environments; less tolerance for impromptu style.
Masculinity Culture low in masculinity values relationships with fellow trainees; female's trainers less likely to be resisted in low masculinity cultures.
Power Distance Culture high in power distance expects trainer to be expert; trainers expected to be authoritarian and controlling of sessions
Time orientation Culture with a LT orientation will have trainees who are likely to accept development plans and assignments.
Goals of diversity training are:
1. To eliminate values, stereotypes, and managerial practices that inhibit employees personal development and therefore
2. To allow employees to contribute to organizational goals regardless of their race, age, physical condition, sexual orientation, gender, family status, religious orientation, or cultural background.
Attitude awareness and change programs
o Focus on increasing employee's awareness of differences in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, physical characteristics, and personal characteristics that influence behavior toward others.
o The assumption is that be increasing awareness of stereotypes and beliefs, employees will be able to avoid negative stereotypes when interacting with employees of different backgrounds.
a barrier to advancement to the higher levels of the organization.
o Make sure that senior management supports and is involved in the program.
o Make a business case for change
o Make the change public
o Using task forces, focus groups, and questionnaires, gather data on problems causing the glass ceiling
o Create awareness of how gender attitudes affect the work environment
o Create accountability through reviews of promotion rates and assignment decisions
o Promote development for all employees
process of identifying and developing the future leadership of the company. Helps attract and retain managerial employees by providing them with development opportunities to attain upper level management as a career goal.
based on self direction with the goal of psychological success in ones work
the feeling of pride and accomplishment that comes from achieving life goals that are not limited to achievements at work
the expectations employers and employees have about each other
d. Comparison of Traditional and Protean Career
Dimension Traditional Protean Career
Goal Promotions Psychological success
Psychological Contract Security for commitment Employability for flexibility
Mobility Vertical Lateral
Responsibility for mgmt company employee
Pattern Linear and expert Spiral and transitory
Expertise know how learn how
Development heavy reliance on formal training greater reliance on and
different generations of employees likely have different career needs and interests. Understanding generational differences is important if a company wants to provide the work conditions that will contribute to employee satisfaction and wants to provide the work conditions that will contribute to employee satisfaction and retention of good employees.
changing ones major work activity after having been established in a specific field.
Career Management System:
helps employees, managers, and the company identifying career development needs.
Elements of Career Management Website:
User Access Web Site Features
Self assessment tools jobs database
training resources employee profile database
job data matching engine
salary information tools and services such as assessment , online
career management advice training programs, development resources
Use of information by employees to determine their career interests, values, aptitudes, and behavioral tendencies. Involves psychological tests.
information employees receive about how the company evaluates their skills and knowledge and where they fit into the company plans.
employees develop short and long term career objectives usually related to desired positions, level of skill application, work setting, or skill acquisition.
employees determine how they will achieve their short and long term career goals. May involve training courses and seminars, informational interviews, employee volunteerism programs, etc.
the process by which new employees are transformed into effective members of the company
Phases of organizational socialization
i. Anticipatory socialization: employees develop expectations about the company, job, working conditions, and interpersonal relationships.
ii. Encounter Phase: employees begin a new job; they experience shock and surprise and needs to become familiar with job tasks, company practices, procedures, etc.
iii. Settling in phase: employees begin to feel comfortable with their job demands and social relationships
What Employees Should Learn and Develop Through Socialization
History the companys goals, values, traditions, customs, and myths; background of members
Company goals Rules of principle directing the company
language sland and jargon unique to the company; professional technical language
politics how to gain information regarding the formal and informal work relationships and
power structures in the company
people successful and satisfying work relationships with other employees
performance proficiency what needs to be learned; effectiveness in using and acquiring the knowledge,
skills, and abilities needed for the job
Content of Orientation Programs
1. Company level information
o Company overview
o Key policies and procedures
o Employee benefits and services
o Safety and accident prevention
o Employee and union relations
o Physical facilities
o Economic factors
o Customer relations
2. Department level information
o Department function and philosophy
o Job duties and responsibilities
o Policies , procedures, rules and regulations
o Performance expectations
o Tour of department
o Introduction to department employees
o Family adjustments
a sequence of job positions involving similar types of work and skills that employees move through in the company.
multiple part time jobs that together make up a full time positions.
the likelihood of the employee receiving future job assignments with increases responsibility is low.
o Mid career employees are most likely to plateau.
o It becomes dysfunctional when the employee feels stuck in a job that offers no potential for personal growth resulting in poor job attitude, increases absenteeism, and poor job performance.
Reasons for plateauing
o Discrimination based on age, gender, or race
o Lack of ability and training
o Low need for achievement
o Unfair pay decisions or dissatisfaction with pay raises
o Confusion about job responsibilities
o Slow company growth resulting in reduced development opportunities
Future Trends that Will Affect Training
Reasons for Increased Use of Technology for Training Delivery
a. The cost of new technologies will decrease.
b. Technology will help employees to better serve customers and generate new business.
c. It can reduce training costs.
d. It allows trainers to build into training the desirable features of a learning environment.
e. Training can be delivered at any place and time.
IV. Reason for Increased Demand for Training for Virtual Work Arrangements
o Location, organization structure, and employment relationships are not limiting factors in virtual work arrangements.
o Two training challenges:
o Companies must invest in training delivery methods that facilitate digital collaboration.
o Teams and employees must be provided with tools needed for finding knowledge.
Rapid instructional design (RID)
o a group of techniques that allows training to be built more quickly.
Two important principles in RID:
• Instructional content and process can be developed independent of each other.
• Resources devoted to design and delivery of instruction can be reallocated as appropriate.
occurs on the job as needed involves collaboration and non learning technologies; is integrated with knowledge management.
Application service provider:
a company that rents out access to software for a specific application
is a planned, systematic change process that uses behavioral science knowledge and techniques to improve companies' effectiveness by improving relationships and increasing learning and problem solving capabilities.
process of ensuring that new interventions such as training practices are accepted and used by employees are accepted and used.
collecting information about employees attitudes and perceptions using a survey, summarizing the results, and providing employees with feedback to stimulate discussion, identifying problems, and plan actions to solve problems.
a consultant works with managers or other employees to help them understand and take action to improve specific events that occur at work.
involves employees from different parts of the organization, customers, and other stakeholders from outside. It brings together the participants in an offsite setting to discuss problems and opportunities or to plan change.
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