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a fiber tract that provides for communication between different parts of the same cerebral hemisphere
site of regulation of body temperature and water balance, most important autonomic center
Axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body
contains autonomic centers regulating blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rhythm as well as couging, sneezing, and swallowing centers
embryonic origin: the diencephalon, including the thalamus, optic chiasma, and hypothalamus
basal ganglia (function)
they are involved in the regulation, modulation, and refinement of voluntary motor activity
in split brain experiments, the main commisure connecting the cerebral hemispheres is cut. What's the name of this commisure?
structures instrumental in returing cerebrospinal fluid to the venous blood in the dural sinuses
name the name and # of crainial nerves involved; raising the eyelids; focusing the lens of the eye for accommodation; and constricting the pupils of the eye
name the name and # of crainial nerves involved; slowing the heart; increasing the motility of digestive tract
name the name and # of crainial nerves involved; listening to music; seasickness
name the name and # of crainial nerves involved; secreting saliva; tasting well-seasoned food
III, IV, VI
name the name and # of crainial nerves involved; involved in rolling the eyes (3 nerves, provide #'s only)
I, II, VIII
name the name and # of crainial nerves involved; exclusively or primarily sensory in function
autonomic nervous system
contains visceral motor nerve fibers, regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands. two functional subdivisions; sympathetic and parasympathetic
largest, most numerous glial cells; maintain blood-brain barrier to isolate CNS from general circulation; provide structural support for CNS; regulate ion and nutrient concentrations; perform repairs to stabilize tissue and prevent further injury
range in shape, line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column, separate cnss interstitial fluid from csf
also called neurolemmocytes, surround peripheral nerve fibers and form myelin sheaths, vital to regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve fibers
short, tapering and diffusely branched, convey electrical signals toward the cell body as graded potentials
segmented protein lipoid sheath around most long or large diameter axons, functions to protect electrically insulate axon, increase speed of nerve impulse transmission
nodes of raniver
myelin sheath gaps between adjacent schwann cells, sites where axon collaterals can emerge
a reduction in membrane potential toward zero, inside of the membrane becomes less negative than the resting potential. increases the probability of producing a nerve impulse
an increase in membrane potential away from zero. inside of the membrane becomes more negative than the resting potential. reduces the probability of producing a nerve impulse
short lived, localiazed changes in the membrane potential, can be depolarizations or hyperpolarizations, graded potential spreads as local currents change the membrane potential of adjacent regions
brief reversal of membrane potential with a total amplitude of 100mv, occurs in muscle cells and axon of neurons
absolute refractory period
nothing can make it fire. time from the opening of the Na channels until the resetting of the channels.
relative refractory period
strong enough will fire, follows the absolute refractory period, most of the Na channels have returned to their resting state, some K channels are still open, repolarization is occuring
Na channel slow inactibation gate close, membrane permeability to Na declines to resting levels, slow voltage-sensitive K gates open, K exits the cell and internal negativity is restored
some K channels remain open, allowing excessive K efflux, this causes after-hyperpolarization of the membrane
restores the resting electrical conditions of the neuron, does not restore the resting ionic conditions
Rapid transmission of a nerve impulse along an axon, resulting from the action potential jumping from one node of Ranvier to another, skipping the myelin-sheathed regions of membrane.
a junction that mediates information transfer from one neuron to another or to an effector cell
a chemical event, involves release, diffusion, and binding of neurotransmitters. ensures unidirectional communication between neurons
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