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Insulin resistance syndrome
distinguishes Syndrome X form other diagnoses that are also called Syndrome X
a cluster of metabolic abnormalities defined as any combination of three of the following: abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and abnormal blood lipid levels
the body cells resist the action of insulin; the usual consequence is an increased production of insulin to override the resistance at the cell level
excess insulin in the blood is felt to play a large part int eh health issues of insulin resistance
Diagnosis based on health correlates/conditions
1. central obesity- men above 40 in, women above 35 in
3. dyslipidemia- above 150
4. prediabetes- 110-126 mg/dl
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
growth of multiple cysts, causes irregular menstrual cycle. common cause of infertility.
uric acid levels increase in bloodstream and form crystals in feet. must avoid high purine foods
Associations with Metabolic syndrome (markers)
-nonalcoholic fatty liver
-elevated ferritin levels
-acanthosis nigricans and cutaneous papillomas
Metabolic syndrome prevention
-emphasize regular physical activity
-avoid excess refined carbohydrates
-emphasize unsaturated fats; avoid excess saturated fat and trans fat
-maintain ideal body weight
Management of Metabolic syndrome
-fat intake; emphasis on monounsaturated fats
-CHO intake (fiber)
-several small meals (low gylcemic)
-incrase exercise and low kilocalorie intake
-fasting blood glucose levels equal to or over 126 mg/dL
-Type 1: Juvenile onset, usually of normal or underweight, pancreatic beta cells destroyed, daily insulin injections required
-Type 2: overweight, insulin resistance related to obesity, most common
Short term effects of diabetes
-excessive hunger and thirst (polyphasia)
-increase or decrease weight
-decrease wound healing
Long term effects of diabetes
-loss of limbs
Risk factors for diabetes and pre diabetes
genetics, family, racial/ethnic background, sedentary lifestyle, HTN, low HDL, high Trig, CVD
Type 2 risk factors
-low fiber intake, processed foods
-high levels of saturated and trans fats, red meat
Type 1 diabetes
-onset peak during adolescence
-betal cells destroyed leading to destruction of insulin production
-usually thin and ketone-prone
-always requires insulin to avoid ketoacidosis (DKA)- occurs when glucose can't be used for energy b/c f insuff. insulin -emergency situation
-timing is important
Type 2 diabetes
-related to insulin resistance
-genetic predisposition requires environ. factors to result in this
-body is producing insulin but cells aren't accepting them
-occurs during pregnancy after placenta is formed, no increased risk in north defects.
-similar to type 2
-possible role of zinc and selenium def.
Potential Consequences of GDM
-elevated glucose form mother = risk of adverse outcomes: spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal death, congenital anomalies, increase insulin and glucose uptake and trig formation in fetus.
-fetal changes increase likelihood later in life in obesity, HTN and type 2 diabetes
Hormones control blood glucose
-insuline lowers BG by allowing cell uptake
-counterregulatory stress hormone raise BG levels by allowing stored glycogen to be released as BG
A1C, the 3month test
sugar attaches to protein throughout the bod and lives for 3 months. BG should be under 7%
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