Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Nutrition Test #2

Insulin resistance syndrome
distinguishes Syndrome X form other diagnoses that are also called Syndrome X
Metabolic Syndrome
a cluster of metabolic abnormalities defined as any combination of three of the following: abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and abnormal blood lipid levels
Insulin resistance
the body cells resist the action of insulin; the usual consequence is an increased production of insulin to override the resistance at the cell level
excess insulin in the blood is felt to play a large part int eh health issues of insulin resistance
Diagnosis based on health correlates/conditions
1. central obesity- men above 40 in, women above 35 in
2. hypertension
3. dyslipidemia- above 150
4. prediabetes- 110-126 mg/dl
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
growth of multiple cysts, causes irregular menstrual cycle. common cause of infertility.
uric acid levels increase in bloodstream and form crystals in feet. must avoid high purine foods
Associations with Metabolic syndrome (markers)
-nonalcoholic fatty liver
-elevated CRP
-elevated ferritin levels
-acanthosis nigricans and cutaneous papillomas
Metabolic syndrome prevention
-emphasize regular physical activity
-high fiber
-avoid excess refined carbohydrates
-emphasize unsaturated fats; avoid excess saturated fat and trans fat
-maintain ideal body weight
-adequate sleep
Management of Metabolic syndrome
-fat intake; emphasis on monounsaturated fats
-CHO intake (fiber)
-several small meals (low gylcemic)
-incrase exercise and low kilocalorie intake
-decrease inflammation
-limit alcohol
Diabetes Mellitus
-fasting blood glucose levels equal to or over 126 mg/dL
-Type 1: Juvenile onset, usually of normal or underweight, pancreatic beta cells destroyed, daily insulin injections required
-Type 2: overweight, insulin resistance related to obesity, most common
Short term effects of diabetes
-excessive hunger and thirst (polyphasia)
-increase urination
-increase or decrease weight
-blurred vision
-increase infections
-decrease wound healing
Long term effects of diabetes
-heart disease
-kidney failure
-poor circulation
-loss of limbs
Risk factors for diabetes and pre diabetes
genetics, family, racial/ethnic background, sedentary lifestyle, HTN, low HDL, high Trig, CVD
Type 1 diabetes risk factors
-uncontrolled celiac disease- must avoid gluten
-vitamin d deficiency
Type 2 risk factors
-excess weight
-physical inactivity
-low fiber intake, processed foods
-high levels of saturated and trans fats, red meat
Type 1 diabetes
-autoummine disease
-onset peak during adolescence
-betal cells destroyed leading to destruction of insulin production
-usually thin and ketone-prone
-always requires insulin to avoid ketoacidosis (DKA)- occurs when glucose can't be used for energy b/c f insuff. insulin -emergency situation
-timing is important
Type 2 diabetes
-related to insulin resistance
-genetic predisposition requires environ. factors to result in this
-body is producing insulin but cells aren't accepting them
Gestational Diabetes
-occurs during pregnancy after placenta is formed, no increased risk in north defects.
-similar to type 2
-possible role of zinc and selenium def.
Potential Consequences of GDM
-elevated glucose form mother = risk of adverse outcomes: spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal death, congenital anomalies, increase insulin and glucose uptake and trig formation in fetus.
-fetal changes increase likelihood later in life in obesity, HTN and type 2 diabetes
Hormones control blood glucose
-insuline lowers BG by allowing cell uptake
-counterregulatory stress hormone raise BG levels by allowing stored glycogen to be released as BG
Counterregulatory stress hormones
-growth hormone
A1C, the 3month test
sugar attaches to protein throughout the bod and lives for 3 months. BG should be under 7%
The Diet plan
heart healthy diet.
-whole-grain breads and cereals, vegetables, fruits, high fiber foods
-limited intake of simple sugars
-low GI foods
-monounsaturated fats
-three regular meals and snacks