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63 terms

Speech science test 3

Speech Science test 3
STUDY
PLAY
Inhalation
Diaphram contracts (moves down)
Ribe cage expands as rib muscles contract
To inhale
Lungs expand, volume of lungs gets larger, pressure drops, air will flow into lungs. Unequal pressure will equalize
respitory cycle
resting breathing speech
In: ~40% ~10%
Ex: ~ 60% ~90%
Exhalation
Diaprham relaxes (Moves up)
Rib cage gets smaller as rib muscles relax.
To Exhale: Reduce volumes, squeeze air particles, raise pressure, and exhale
Automaticity
Resting breathing is automatic; speech breathing involves active control over the process. The breathing just happens but adjustments are not automatic
Secondary muscles of inhalation
Added to the primary muscles in speech breathing (futher expand the ribcage)
-Pectoralis Major
-Pectoralis Minor
-costal Levators
-Serratus anterior
-serratus posterior superior
-Latissimus dorsi
-scalenus muscle group
Volume
Larger volume inhalation in speech that rest to accommodate energy for length/loudness of utterance.
Airways
enter through nose/mouth to pharyx to larynx
larynx
the voice box, located in the top part of the trachea, underneath the epiglottis (cartiloginous structure), a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea
Trachea
membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi, carries air between larynx and bronchi
bronchi
two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.
Bronchioles
progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways, the smallest tubes of the bronchus. Coming from the bronchi that contain clusters of alveoli at each end.
Alveoli
thin-walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Air coming in rich in fresh O2
Air going out CO2 (waste air)
Lungs
Have NO musculature!
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
How do Lungs change volume?
lungs resting on diaphram
-> raise and lower diaphram
-> can change lunge volume vertically
AND
Can make ribcage larger or smaller
-> change lung volumes
-> front to back side to side
Pleural linkage
mechanism by which lungs "linked" to thoracic wall - allows movements of rib cage to be transmitted to lungs so that lungs can increase and decrease volume without friction
Costal pleura
-Ribcage lining
- Covers the internal surface of the ribs and sternum
- Endothoracic fascia
- It goes anterior to posterior
phrenic nerve
one of a pair of nerves that arises from cervical spinal roots and passes down the thorax to innervate the diaphragm and control breathing
External intercostals
elevates rib cage for inhaling (expand the rib cage, inhalation muscles)
internal Intercostals
Draws the ribs together and depresses rib cage ( exhalation)
interosseous intercostals
pertaining to being situated between bones, as in muscles, ligaments, or vessels. Reduce the volume of the ribcage (exhalation)
interchondral intercostals
between cartilages, used to refer to parts of intercostal muscles running between cartilage parts of ribs (expand ribcage) inhalation
Resting inhale
1. contract diaphram
2. contract external intercostal
3. contract internal intercondral intercostal
resting inhale cont..Pressure will equalize
relaxation pressure take over:
1.elasticity-(coupled lungs+ribcage)
Bounce back to natural shape
2.Gravity-Lung ribcage, pulls ribcage to rest, aids in lowering
3.torque- untwisting of cartilige(nex to sternum)
>>> reduce thorasic volume which reduces lung volume and causes increase in pressure> causes exhale
resting exhale
Decrease in volume
increase in pressure
Bring system to REL=~ 40% vital capacity
need to inhale again signaled by the medulla
Primary muscles for inhalation
Diaphram
External intercostal
interchondral internal intercostal
Vital capacity
the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation (usually tested with a spirometer) 100%volume= 7liters
BUT VC is 5 liters of air for max inhaltation and exhalation
2 extra liters?
residual volume; need at least 2 liters of air in lungs at same time or lungs will collapse
Relaxation Volume
40% VC=Resting Expiratory Level (REL)
Lungs want to be at 40% of vital capacity
Tidal breathing
normal, resting breathing. Amount of air exchanged is 1/10 of what is capable.(approx 5L)
Expiratory reserve
the volume of air that can be expired beyond the normal tidal volume by a maximum expiratory effort (1100ml)
Inspiratory Reserve
Air that can be forced in over tidal volume normall 2-3 liters
speech breathing
Typically take a larger breath than resting breathing
-expand volume more
-more air comes in to equalize pressure
-relaxation forces stronger
speech breathing cont.
1. inhale for speech-> primary and secondary muscles of inhalation
2. exhale for speech->SLOW DOWN EXHALE
control relaxation pressure to exhale quickly
"checking action"
as lowering use lifting muscles contract inhalation muscles during exhalation
3.exhalation muscles-> push system below 40% VC
Speech breathing 10:90
Resting breathing 40:60
Checking action
use of inhalation muscles during exhalation. After inhalation is complete, use inhalation muscles to counter(check) strong exhalation muscles
relaxation pressure curve
what happens when you inhale or exhale to a certain value of VC and allow relaxation forces to act.
>40% VC, you will exhale
<40% VC you will inhale
The larger the inhale, the more the muscles have to counter. Muscles have to constantly be adjusting. The further you are from 40% the relaxation pressure gets stronger
Larynx
-Situated on top of the trachea
-suspended from the hyoid bone
Supraglottal system
above the vocal folds, and larynx, sounds created above the glottis in the nasal, oral, and pharyngeal cavities
Laryngeal system
prevents foreign material from entering lungs
Laryngeal closure allows for vibration of vocal folds
responsible for respiration and speech production; primary job of vocal cords is to block airway while we eat, 2nd is speech production (valve and vibrator); hyoid bone, mandible, thoracic skeleton
Lower airway
Lower airway begins with trachea
(Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli) *FUNCTION: Oxygen & carbon dioxide exchange (occurs in alveoli)
epiglottis
a flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering
vocal folds
-Located in the larynx, originating from the thyroid and attaching to the arytenoids. Covered by mucous membrane.
-Attach to the vocal process of the arytenoids posteriouly and to the thyroid cartilage anteriorly at the thyroid notch. forming a V shape 2 arytenoids at the back.
Cricoid
ring shaped cartilage formed at the top of the trachea.
Large lamina (plate in the back)
narrow front and sides
vocal ligaments
Description/Location:
Paired ligaments which originate at the thyroid cartilage(at front) below the thyroid notch and insert into the vocal process(anterior part) of the arytenoid cartilages.
-The intermost part of the fold



Function:
1. They give shape to the inside edge of the vocal folds
2. They can stretch up to 50% of their original length when acted upon by outside forces.

INTERMOST PART OF THE VOCAL FOLDS
Arytenoid cartilages
Two small, pyramid shaped cartilages. Vocal folds are attached. Connected to cricoid through cricoarytenoid joint which permits circular and sliding movement.
thyroid cartilages
largest (adams apple)
Looks like a shield (Thyros) greek for shield
anterior to the arytenoids
articulate with cricoid bone
Musculature and VF positions ABDUCTION
-Resting position(in resting position vocal folds are open)
Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle PCA
An abductor muscle. Arises form the back wall of cricoid cartilage. Inserts into muscular processes of the arytenoid cartilages. They are the major muscles responsible for rocking and gliding the arytenoids apart. They are the major muscles that abduct(pull apart) the vocal folds. THE ONLY MUSCLE THAT OPENS VF'S
Adduction
-vocal folds must be brought together to initiate voicing.
-whenever use voiced sounds use INT BUT when producing VCD speech sounds but NO vocal tract sounds all ADD LCA
Interarytenoid muscles INT(all voiced sounds)
-Closes vocal folds
, Description/Location:
1. Attached between the arytenoid cartilages.
2. Comprising the transverse (attached at the base) and oblique (from tip to base) interarytenoids.

Function:
Aid in adduction by causing the arytenoid cartilages to slide together.
USE INT ONLY
VCD consonants, stops, frics, affrics
2 things :
-vocal folds closed to vibrate creating alot of air pressure
- doesn't close folds as tighlty for VCD consonants as for VCD sounds with out vocal tract source
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles LCA
Used for voiced sounds without a vocal tract source:
Vowels, dipthongs, semivowels(glides,liquids), nasals
Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation
MYO-Muscles
ELASTIC- elasticity of folds
AERODYNAMIC-airflow and air pressure
1.muscles close folds "adduct" "ready them for vibration(phonation)" causing as increase in air pressure
2. pressure will eventually blow VF's apart "abduct"
3.Vocal folds are sucked back together again by the negative pressure. I.e Bernoulli effect; high velocity air flow through a narrow region resulting in drop in pressure. The negative pressure is a vacuum.
CYCLE REPEATS
Positive sub-glotal pressure
Closing folds-> get build up of air pressure beneath folds
Vocalis muscles
the vibrating parts of the vocal folds also known as the thyroarytenoid mucles
thoracic wall
Thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum and associated muscles Thoracic cavity: space enclosed by thoracic wall and diaphragm. Diaphragm separates thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity, surrounds cavity protects contents participates in breating
medulla oblongata
the lobes that coordinate vital functions, such as those of the circulatory and respiratory systems, and transport signals from the brain to the spinal cord
costal pleura
-covers internal surfaces of the thoracic wall (sternum, ribs, costal cartilages, intercostal muscles and membranes, sides of vertebrae)
-separated from wall by endothoracic fascia
Pulmonary pleura
This is the name for organ that covers the lung. It is primarily epithelial tissue and secretes a serous fluid that lubricates, reduces heat build-up, and creates surface tension that helps us breathe.
relaxation pressure curve
Restoring forces during expiration: "the greater you distend or distort chest wall the greater is the force required to hold it in that position and the greater is the force with which it returns to rest. No musculature involved
vertical phase difference
The slight time lag between the opening and closing of the inferior and superior portions of the vocal folds, creates wave like motion
Superior laryngeal nerve
nerve supply to the cricothyroid muscle
recurrent laryngeal nerve
Innervation of all intrinsic laryngeal muscles except the cricothyroid