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Jim Crow Laws

Laws concerning and promoting the practice of segregation

Amendment 24

Abolition of Poll Tax in National Elections

Irish Potato Famine

~1840- The potato crops in Ireland became diseased and the Irish starved, killing off 2 million people, about 1/4 of Ireland's total population. Set off the immigration to the U.S.

"Shanty Irish"

A derogatory term for poor immigrants from Ireland who would end up living in poor neighborhoods with poorly made houses

Voting Blocs

A group of individuals who share same political agendas, cultural interests, etc. and together can influence the outcome of votes

Tammany Hall

a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism

Political Patronage

Giving jobs as rewards to members of supporting voting blocs


Thousands of disappointed German liberals left Germany after the failed revolutions of 1848 and many moved to the United States where given this name. Brought, in addition to a ripple of revolutionary agitation, stream of professional and craft oriented immigrants to U.S.

Frankfurt Assembly

German Parliament met in Frankfurt to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream: the preparation of a constitution for a united Germany-ultimately failed


Americans who feared that immigrants would take jobs and impose their Roman Catholic beliefs on society

Dream Act

act that would grant conditional residency to alien students if they complete two years of military service or two years of college

"Wage slave"

factory workers though paid a wage made very little money and little freedom in many ways they were considered enslaved, coined by Engels

Lowell Girls

In a textile mill at Lowell, Massachusetts virtually all of the workers were New England farm girls. They were supervised on and off the job, and even escorted to and from church. They had few opportunities to express their discontentment regardiong their working conditions. Was one example of inhumane labor conditions in America during the Industrial Revolution.

"Fulton's Folly"

Robert Fulton's steamboat, which was anticipated by the public to be a failure but ended up to be significant as it changed rivers into two-way passages

Erie Canal

An intrastate canal in New York, which Governor Clinton has the state pay for, ~$25 million. This canal would would connect the Hudson to Lake Erie and would make New York the richest state in the country.

Standardized Gauge

uniform gauge for all rails that improves travel and makes things more efficient. Trains can go across the country.

Black Belt South

The area from South Carolina to Oklahoma. It had black, fertile soil and was good for cotton. Here slaves made up 1/2 of the population.

Old South

The area containing Virginia and North Carolina; still used to harvest indigo and tobacco

"Prairie Schooner"

a large wagon with broad wheels and an arched canvas top

Russel, Majors, and Waddel

Three men that formed a company profiting from hauling freight in the West and would come up for the idea of the Pony Express


The so-called "idea man"; the creative force behind the Pony Express; the equivalent of today's Chief Executive Officer


The practicalist behind the Pony Express, the equivalent of today's Chief Operations Officer


The "bean counter" or the accountant behind the Pony Express, the equivalent of today's Chief Financial Officer

Steamship Mail Company

The initial method of transporting mail between California and the East- Steamships from both coasts would meet up in Panama to exchange mail

Transcontinental Telegraph

Created as a way to connect California to the Eastern states. This made the Pony Express obsolete and it officially ceased operations two days later.

American Express

A stagecoach company with focus on passenger transport which bought mail stations from the obsolete Pony Express

Wells Fargo

A wagon transport company with focus on freight which bought mail stations from the obsolete Pony Express

Atlanta, Georgia

The initial rally point of all freight planes belonging to Federal Express to meet and redistribute packages and mail

Memphis, Tennessee

The current rally point of FedEx planes, after its previous rally point ran out of plane capacity

Transatlantic Cable

Developed by Cyrus Field, this crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Foilhommerum, Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Heart's Content, in eastern Newfoundland, bridging North America and Europe, and expedited communication between the two. Whereas it would normally take at least ten days to deliver a message by ship, it now took a matter of minutes by telegraph

San Francisco, Seattle, San Diego

The three natural harbors on the West Coast of North America, which would help the United States open up trade in the Pacific

Mountain Men

Men hired by eastern companies to trap animals for fur in the Rocky Mountains and other regions of the US.

Willamette River

The river where most American fur trappers would set their beaver traps

Columbia River

The river that acted as the informal boundary between British fur trapping grounds and American fur trapping grounds

Westward Movement

Essentially a one way trip, this described the migration of settlers heading westward towards Oregon Country and California

Wagon Trains

These were a group of pioneers traveling westward in their wagons. Many pioneers were scared to travel alone so they often got larger groups together, and elected a "pilot" or leader to guide them westward. These pilots were generally former fur trappers and they were elected fairly democratically.

Fort Bridger

Trading post in the heart of South Pass built by Jim Bridger

South Pass

An effective route through the Rocky Mountains rediscovered by Jim Bridger, but had been used by Native Americans for the longest time already

Donner Party

in 1846 a group of 87 overlanders, known as this party after the two brothers who lead them, were trapped by winter snows high up in the sierra nevada. after 41 died of starvation, those alive faced the choice of death or cannibalism, many resorted to cannibalism.


A type of resolution, considered a win-win solution when a third party decides how to bring the two conflicting groups to a resolution


A type of resolution, considered a win-lose solution when a third party decides in one groups' favor

"Colossus of the North"

The name given to America by Latin America; we were seen as the "big bully"

Gadsden Purchase

Strip of land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico that was acquired by the U.S. in 1853 for $10 million which provided the land need to complete the transcontinental railroad

Gringo and Yanquis

Two derogatory terms for Americans used by Latin Americans which were derived from use in the Mexican War

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