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all of the following are functions of blood except

synthesis of vitamins

what protects the body against blood loss?

clots formed by platelets and blood proteins

the two primary components of whole blood are

plasma and formed elements

what are the formed elements of blood

erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets

the most abundant compound in blood plasma, accounting for about 92% of the total volume is


the three major classes of plasma proteins are

albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen

immunoglobulins, soluable proteins produced by some of our defense cells to protect the body against pathogens, are also called


the plasma protein ________ an essential component of the clotting system, can be converted into long, insoluble strands of fibrin


All the following are true of erythrocytes except

they have finite life span averaging only about 60 days

Stacks of erythrocytes call _________ can pass through blood vessels barely larger than the diameter of a single erythrocyte


Abundant molecules of ___________ give erythrocytes both their color and their ability to transport oxygen.


Projecting from the surface of its plasma membrane, each erythrocyte has numerous molecules called surface antigens or


In terms of the ABO blood group, which blood type makes a person a universal recipient?


Individuals with type O blood lack surface antigens A and B, and so their plasma contains

both anti A and anti B antibodies
both of the above

Unlike those of the ABO group, antibodies to the Rh factor are produced only after an ________ individual is exposed to _______

Rh negative; Rh positive blood

What formed elements can help initiate a immune response and defend the body against pathogens?


Leukocytes exhibit __________, an attraction to molecules released by damaged cells, dead cells, or pathogens


Leukocytes are divided into two classes based on the presence or absence of visible organelles called

specific granules

The three types of granulocytes named according to their granules stain are

basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils

Although they typically constitute 20-25% of all leukocytes, most _________ reside in lymphatic tissues rather than blood


Which of the following is not a characteristic of neutrophils?

they do not: remain in circulation for several weeks to months

Which leukocyte phagocytize allergens and chemically attack parasitic worms?


Monocytes are agranulocytes that leave the circulation after a few days to become


Lymphocytes that manage and direct an immune response, in some cases directly attacking foreign cells and virus-infected cells are classified as


Which of the following phrases does not accurately describe platelets?

they are not: produced in the thymus by progenitor cells

The word root thrombocyte most nearly means


the continual process of producing new formed elements of all kinds is called


erythropoiesis occurs in

red bone marrow

Serum is the fraction of plasma remaining after the removal of

plasma proteins

Salts and protein molecules in blood help prevent excess fluid loss from the plasma by maintaining the proper ____________; this is necessary because water and solutes must be able to "leak" across capillary walls to complete another major function of blood, ____________.

osmotic balance; thermoregulation

All types of blood cells arise indirectly from


Given that the liver synthesizes most of the plasma proteins, severe liver disorders can be expected to cause

decreased osmotic pressure of the blood plasma
less efficient transport of iron ions and lipids
diminished clotting ability
all of the above

Myeloid stem cells give rise to three separate lineages of ____________ that differentiate into erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and ____________.

progenitor cells; granulocytes and monocytes

Immature erythrocytes that still have nuclei and are actively synthesizing hemoglobin are called


As the final step in the maturation process, ____________ lose their remaining ribosomes to become erythrocytes.


Athletes temporarily increase their hematocrit without increasing oxygen-carrying capacity whenever they

become dehydrated

The heme groups from old erythrocytes are stripped of their iron and eventually recycled into a substance that helps to

emulsify fats in the digestive tract

How is hemolytic disease of the newborn prevented in an Rh negative woman who is pregnant with an Rh positive fetus?

Administration of special immunoglobulins will prevent the mother from developing Rh antibodies.

The types of ____________ are named for their specific affinities to chemical stains.


The most abundant type of circulating leukocyte, which has a multilobed nucleus and cytoplasm packed with pale-staining granules, is the


Which leukocyte lacks specific granules, is up to three times the diameter of an erythrocyte, and has a large kidney-shaped or C-shaped nucleus?


An elevated count of neutrophils in the blood would most likely indicate

a chronic bacterial infection

Which two types of cells release histamine (to dilate blood vessels) and heparin (to inhibit clotting)?

mast cells and basophils

During an attack of hay fever (or allergic rhinitis), a person could expect to have a higher than normal percentage of circulating


The cells that produce the smallest formed elements of the blood are called


Which sequence correctly lists formed elements in order of increasing abundance in typical blood?

leukocytes, platelets, erythrocytes

Plasma cells (one type of specialized lymphocyte) and eosinophils work at opposite ends of specific immune responses involving proteins known as


Filled to capacity after a trip through the capillaries of the lungs, a normal erythrocyte would contain

over a billion molecules of oxygen

A general shortage of the only formed elements that retain all of their organelles is called


When a leukocyte squeezes between endothelial cells in pursuit of pathogens, its ____________ has triggered its ____________.

chemotaxis; diapedesis

Persons with Rh ____________ blood never exhibit Rh ____________

positive; antibodies

In the adult, the stem cells for leukocytes reside in the

red bone marrow

Which type of leukocyte increases during allergic reactions and parasitic worm infections?


Which type of leukocyte increases during allergic reactions and parasitic worm infections?


Which of the following is not a function of blood?

does not produce hormones

A person with blood type A has

anti-B antibodies in her blood plasma.

Hematocrit is

the percentage of formed elements in the blood.

Oxygen attaches to a(n)_____ion in hemoglobin.


During the recycling of components following the normal destruction of erythrocytes, globin is broken down, and its components are

used to synthesize new proteins

The type of leukocyte that produces antibodies is a (an)


Which of the following is not a characteristic of a mature erythrocyte?

does not have a lifespan of 12 months

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