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61 terms

Blood

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all of the following are functions of blood except
synthesis of vitamins
what protects the body against blood loss?
clots formed by platelets and blood proteins
the two primary components of whole blood are
plasma and formed elements
what are the formed elements of blood
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
the most abundant compound in blood plasma, accounting for about 92% of the total volume is
water
the three major classes of plasma proteins are
albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
immunoglobulins, soluable proteins produced by some of our defense cells to protect the body against pathogens, are also called
antibodies
the plasma protein ________ an essential component of the clotting system, can be converted into long, insoluble strands of fibrin
fibrinogen
All the following are true of erythrocytes except
they have finite life span averaging only about 60 days
Stacks of erythrocytes call _________ can pass through blood vessels barely larger than the diameter of a single erythrocyte
rouleaux
Abundant molecules of ___________ give erythrocytes both their color and their ability to transport oxygen.
hemoglobin
Projecting from the surface of its plasma membrane, each erythrocyte has numerous molecules called surface antigens or
agglutinogens
In terms of the ABO blood group, which blood type makes a person a universal recipient?
AB
Individuals with type O blood lack surface antigens A and B, and so their plasma contains
both anti A and anti B antibodies
both of the above
Unlike those of the ABO group, antibodies to the Rh factor are produced only after an ________ individual is exposed to _______
Rh negative; Rh positive blood
What formed elements can help initiate a immune response and defend the body against pathogens?
leukocytes
Leukocytes exhibit __________, an attraction to molecules released by damaged cells, dead cells, or pathogens
chemotaxis
Leukocytes are divided into two classes based on the presence or absence of visible organelles called
specific granules
The three types of granulocytes named according to their granules stain are
basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils
Although they typically constitute 20-25% of all leukocytes, most _________ reside in lymphatic tissues rather than blood
lymphocytes
Which of the following is not a characteristic of neutrophils?
they do not: remain in circulation for several weeks to months
Which leukocyte phagocytize allergens and chemically attack parasitic worms?
eosinophils
Monocytes are agranulocytes that leave the circulation after a few days to become
macrophages
Lymphocytes that manage and direct an immune response, in some cases directly attacking foreign cells and virus-infected cells are classified as
T-lymphocytes
Which of the following phrases does not accurately describe platelets?
they are not: produced in the thymus by progenitor cells
The word root thrombocyte most nearly means
clot
the continual process of producing new formed elements of all kinds is called
hemopoiesis
erythropoiesis occurs in
red bone marrow
Serum is the fraction of plasma remaining after the removal of
plasma proteins
Salts and protein molecules in blood help prevent excess fluid loss from the plasma by maintaining the proper ____________; this is necessary because water and solutes must be able to "leak" across capillary walls to complete another major function of blood, ____________.
osmotic balance; thermoregulation
All types of blood cells arise indirectly from
hemocytoblasts
Given that the liver synthesizes most of the plasma proteins, severe liver disorders can be expected to cause
decreased osmotic pressure of the blood plasma
less efficient transport of iron ions and lipids
diminished clotting ability
all of the above
Myeloid stem cells give rise to three separate lineages of ____________ that differentiate into erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and ____________.
progenitor cells; granulocytes and monocytes
Immature erythrocytes that still have nuclei and are actively synthesizing hemoglobin are called
erythrocytes
As the final step in the maturation process, ____________ lose their remaining ribosomes to become erythrocytes.
reticulocytes
Athletes temporarily increase their hematocrit without increasing oxygen-carrying capacity whenever they
become dehydrated
The heme groups from old erythrocytes are stripped of their iron and eventually recycled into a substance that helps to
emulsify fats in the digestive tract
How is hemolytic disease of the newborn prevented in an Rh negative woman who is pregnant with an Rh positive fetus?
Administration of special immunoglobulins will prevent the mother from developing Rh antibodies.
The types of ____________ are named for their specific affinities to chemical stains.
granulocytes
The most abundant type of circulating leukocyte, which has a multilobed nucleus and cytoplasm packed with pale-staining granules, is the
neutrophil
Which leukocyte lacks specific granules, is up to three times the diameter of an erythrocyte, and has a large kidney-shaped or C-shaped nucleus?
monocyte
An elevated count of neutrophils in the blood would most likely indicate
a chronic bacterial infection
Which two types of cells release histamine (to dilate blood vessels) and heparin (to inhibit clotting)?
mast cells and basophils
During an attack of hay fever (or allergic rhinitis), a person could expect to have a higher than normal percentage of circulating
eosinophils
The cells that produce the smallest formed elements of the blood are called
megakaryocytes
Which sequence correctly lists formed elements in order of increasing abundance in typical blood?
leukocytes, platelets, erythrocytes
Plasma cells (one type of specialized lymphocyte) and eosinophils work at opposite ends of specific immune responses involving proteins known as
immunoglobins
Filled to capacity after a trip through the capillaries of the lungs, a normal erythrocyte would contain
over a billion molecules of oxygen
A general shortage of the only formed elements that retain all of their organelles is called
leukopenia
When a leukocyte squeezes between endothelial cells in pursuit of pathogens, its ____________ has triggered its ____________.
chemotaxis; diapedesis
Persons with Rh ____________ blood never exhibit Rh ____________
positive; antibodies
In the adult, the stem cells for leukocytes reside in the
red bone marrow
Which type of leukocyte increases during allergic reactions and parasitic worm infections?
eosinophil
Which type of leukocyte increases during allergic reactions and parasitic worm infections?
megakaryocyte
Which of the following is not a function of blood?
does not produce hormones
A person with blood type A has
anti-B antibodies in her blood plasma.
Hematocrit is
the percentage of formed elements in the blood.
Oxygen attaches to a(n)_____ion in hemoglobin.
iron
During the recycling of components following the normal destruction of erythrocytes, globin is broken down, and its components are
used to synthesize new proteins
The type of leukocyte that produces antibodies is a (an)
B-Lymphocytes
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a mature erythrocyte?
does not have a lifespan of 12 months