B1 M3 C21
B1 M3 C21
Terms in this set (33)
"descent with modification"
In a large population of goldfish, the frequency of a recessive allele, q, is 0.3. If there is no natural selection, genetic drift, or mutation in this population, what is the frequency of the dominant allele (assume that there are only two alleles at this locus)?
In a population that is NOT in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, p = 0.01. What is q?
random changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next—may produce large changes in allele frequencies over time.
In the Hardy-Weinberg model, p and q are the allele frequencies at a particular gene locus in a population that has only two alleles present. Which one of the following mathematical statements is true about this model?
In a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in which the frequency of A alleles (p) is 0.5, the expected frequency of Aa individuals is:
Georges Cuvier's discovery of fossils of Irish elk and giant ground sloths:
extinction must occur
Researchers studying a particular gene associated with disease risk in a mouse population found two alleles of interest: M1 and M2. They found that M1 was present in 64% of the gametes produced by one generation of mice. If this population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what is the frequency of the M2 allele?
hardy weinberg equilibrium
a null hypothesis that assumes Evolutionary mechanisms that are forces that change the genetic structure of a population are absent. One of the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is that there be no mutation.
The relative proportion of a particular allele in a specific population.
Random changes in allele frequencies resulting from establishment of a population by a very small number of individuals.
nonrandom mating does not change...
Fisher's Fundamental Theorem states that the rate of increase of mean fitness is equal to the genetic variance for fitness. What is the major implication provided by this fundamental theorem?
Mean fitness increases by selection.
In blue-gilled sunfish, there are three types of males. The alpha-male creates and defends his own territory in order to attract females. The beta-male mimics the females, so he slips into the alpha-male's territory without being noticed, and is able to mate with females in this manner. The gamma-male is tiny and darts in and out of the alpha-male's territory attempting to mate with females. This system is an example of:
The contribution of a genotype or phenotype to the genetic composition of subsequent generations, relative to the contribution of other genotypes or phenotypes. (See also inclusive fitness.)
are random with respect to the environmental needs of the organism in which the mutation takes place.
If evolution has occurred:
the allele frequencies in a population have changed.
Which of the following is NOT an important reason that natural selection does not lead to perfect organisms?
Artificial selection, that is, selection by humans for improvement of animal and plants for human use, is the only way that perfect organisms can evolve.
In general, in a population in which a trait is exposed to stabilizing selection over time:
the mean stays approximately the same and the variation decreases.
a bimodal trait is most likely to be caused by disruptive selection; two-peaked) distribution
Density-dependent selection can best be defined as:
when the relative fitness of an individual depends on the size of the population.
For a population to evolve through natural selection:
its members must possess inheritable variation.
only via natural selection, genetic drift, migration, or mutation.
locally interbreeding groups; To measure allele frequencies in a Mendelian population precisely, we would need to count every allele at every locus in every individual in the population. By doing so, we could determine the frequencies of all alleles in the population. The word frequency in this case refers to an allele's proportion in the gene pool at a particular locus.
The simplest definition of "population genetics" is:
The study of genetic variation and its causes within populations.
The migrational history of has modified the course of human evolution by increasing:
In a population of 200 Kirtland's warblers, 60 are breeding females, 60 are breeding males, and 80 are non-breeding juveniles. What is the effective population size?
A population is said to be polymorphic for a gene locus if it has at least:
two different alleles at that locus.
Mutations generate entirely new alleles.
The higher the proportion of loci that are fixed in a population, the lower is that population's:
genetic polymorphism.b) nucleotide variability.c) average heterozygosity.
Individuals with one copy of the sickle-cell anemia allele have decreased susceptibility to malaria. For many genes, a single allele is unlikely to perform well under all these conditions. In such situations, a heterozygous individual (with two different alleles) is likely to outperform individuals that are homozygous for either one of the alleles.
In examples of convergent evolution, it can be demonstrated that organisms of the two groups that converged:
occupy similar environments.
Which one of the following best describes the difference between artificial and natural selection?
Natural selection can act without the input of humans; artificial selection requires some human input.
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B1 M3 C20