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Functions of the nervous system are?
Sensory input, Interpretive functions, Motor output, Higher mental functioning, Emotional responsiveness
Central Nervous System (CNS) Functions?
Interprets sensory info, Initiates motor responses, Center for thoughts & emotions.
CNS major components are
Brain, spinal cord, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid.
All of these are surrounded by bones of the skull and spinal column
Neuroglia or glia cell is
Connective tissue that supports, nourishes, protects, insulates and organizes neurons.
Interneuron = association
Carry impulses between sensory & motor neurons
Perform integrative functions
Change in the electrical charge of a neural membrane caused by movement of charged particles (ions)
Polarization has inside and outside charges what are they?
Inside bears negative (-) charge
Outside bears positive (+) charge
Produces & maintains polarization and pumps ions in opposite direction at an unequal rates.
When stimulated, channels open and Na flows into cell. Cell interior changes from (-) to (+)
Impulse is conducted along entire neuron at maximum capacity.
Impulse continues until it reaches end of neuron
The junction between 2 neurons or between a neuron an a muscle or gland. Impulses are transmitted across sysapse by action of neurotransmitters
Synaptic bulb (presynaptic neuron)
Plasma membrane (postsynaptic neuron)
Plasma membrane (postsynaptic neuron)
Dendrites of postsynaptic neuron contain binding sites for neurotransmitters
1. Impulse travels down axon to synaptic bulb (neurotransmitters are released)
2. Neurotransmitters cross synaptic cleft
3. Neurotransmitters bind to receptors on plasma membrane of postsynaptic neuron
*Neurotransmitter action does not last long
continuously removed from synaptic cleft by enzymes or reuptake.
Chemical messengers involved in nerve transmission are stored in vesicles and can be either excitatory or inhibitory
Sensory & motor areas
Limbic system (governs many certain emotions)
Cerebrum contains right and left hemispheres
Left Hemispheres Specialization
Language; receptive and expressive
Reasoning and analytical skills such as math
Regulates motor output and cognition.
Broca's areas - speech production
Prefrontal cortex - where emotion are processed
Precentral gyrus - called primary motor area
Regulates proprioception, reading and taste.
Governs sensory input (mainly skin & muscles)
Regulates ANS and endocrine system
Controls hunger and thirst, anger and aggression, hormones, sexual behavior and sleep patterns
Semipermeable wall of blood capillaries. Prevents or slows passage of some chemicals and pathogens from blood into CNS
Exits skull via foramen magnum and is known as the information highway and a integrating center.
A cross section of the spinal cord reveals this?
White matter located on periphery and Gray matter located in center(H-shaped)
There are types of tracts
Ascending - Sensory (afferent) impulses travel up cord
Descending - Motor (efferent) impulses travel down cord
Functions of the Cerebrospinal Fluid
Supplies O2 and nutrients, Carries away wastes, Acts as a shock absorber
CN V(5) Trigeminal
contains 3 branches; pain, temperature and motor innervation for muscles of mastication.
CN X(10) Vagus
Receives sensations from external ear and external auditory canal and thoracic and abdominal organs. Aids digestion. Regulates heart activity
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Supports functions that conserve & restore energy - (Maintains homeostasis and regulates urinary & digestive processes, pooping and storing nutrients)
Most active under calm conditions
Referred to as craniosacral outflow
Sympathetic Nervous System
Uses body energy for periods of physical exertion or emotional stress
Adrenals secrete ephinephrine
Referred to as thoracolumbar outflow
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