SW 360 Final
Terms in this set (66)
History of Social Work
Early settlement houses; parishes and churches (England)
Early group work
Introduction of medical models (assessing, diagnosing, solving) → case work → therapeutic model
NASW founded in 1955
make people aware of their distorted thinking & then substitute more rational responses for the distorted thoughts
Steps involved in cognitive restructuring:
-Recognition and acceptance of a problem and taking responsibility for making change
-Willingness to look for evidence that goes against your cognition/belief
-Willingness to accept new ideas, learn new skills, and change the way you evaluate a situation
-Formation of new thoughts/beliefs that are more realistic and positive and identification of new behavioral skills
-Rehearsal of the new paradigm (positive thoughts/beliefs) and behavioral skills that help to resolve conflict
-Practice, practice, practice
Does the person have intent? A plan? The means to go through with it?
Stanley Brown Safety Planning
warning signs, coping strategies, social contacts (have someone to contact during a crisis), safe environment
helps clients to improve coping skills and leads to more satisfying relationships
Benefits of assertiveness training
-Gain self respect and respect from others
-When we try to never hurt anyone, we hurt ourselves and others
-Everyone benefits when we stand up for ourselves
-When we sacrifice our integrity and deny our personal feelings, relationships are damaged
-Personal relationships are more authentic and satisfying when we share our honest reactions
-Not letting others know what we think/feel is selfish
-Others take advantage of us when we sacrifice our rights
-When we tell others how their behavior affects us, we give them an opportunity to change and we show respect for their right to know where they stand with us
5 types of assertiveness
standing up for personal rights, beliefs, or opinions
you convey some sensitivity to the other person; it recognizes the other person's feelings and experiences
starts with a minimal response that can be turned up a notch if the person does not respond; the second or turned up response is firmer and more focused; as the escalating responses become firmer, they also become more assertive and blunt
used when other people's words contradict their actions; involves describing what the other person promised to do, what was actually done, and how you feel about it
especially helpful in getting people to express difficult negative feelings; ex. "When _________________ the effects are _____________________, and I feel __________________________. I'd prefer ________________________________."
4 types of communication
Passive: involves violating your own rights by failing to express honest feelings, thoughts, and beliefs and consequently allowing others to also violate your rights; or expressing your thoughts and feelings in such an apologetic, timid manner that others can easily disregard them
Aggressive: involves directly standing up for personal rights and expressing thoughts, feelings, and beliefs in a way which is emotionally honest but usually inappropriate and in violation of the rights of others
Passive-aggressive: involves expressing your needs and feelings in an unclear and confusing manner
Assertive: involves standing up for personal rights and expressing thoughts, feelings, and beliefs in direct, honest, and appropriate ways which do not violate another person's rights
5 myths about anger
anger is a behavior, you should be afraid of your buried anger, the human steam kettle, venting is good for your health, and anger needs to be expressed
Goals of anger management programs
Acknowledge that anger has become a destructive force
Describe situations in which anger is difficult to manage
Identify cues that anger is getting near the boiling point
Implement strategies to control outbursts
Evaluate effectiveness of strategies
Practice the strategies that work best
stress management techniques
positive imagery, breathing exercises, muscle relaxation exercises
-Initial rise in tension
-Emergency problem solving skills are utilized
-Tension increases, acute anxiety or depression ensues
-Major breakdown or maladaptive coping strategies
Motivational Interviewing 5 skills:
Five skills: use empathy, develop discrepancy, avoid argumentation, roll with resistance, and support self-efficacy
Working with people with disabilities
Refer to the disability only when relevant
Use the word "disability" not "handicapped"
Speak to the person, not the disability
Ask the person if they need help with something before doing it
Assume that the person with disabilities also has other strengths & abilities
Introduce yourself and everyone clearly when speaking to a blind person
Continue to use words like "see", "walk", and "hear"
Use the word "accessible"
Don't do when working with people with disabilities
Use terms like "defective" or "crippled"
Refer to people with disabilities as "the disabled" or "the mentally ill"
Use derogatory words like "Mongoloid" or "dwarf"
Refer to able-bodied as "normal"
Use terms like "wheelchair bound"
Assume that disabilities within the senses indicate cognitive disabilities
Suggest that people with disabilities are in some way special, or heroes
Use the term "handicapped"
Lean on a person's wheelchair when talking to them
the intent to and the processes of assisting individuals, groups, families, and communities to discover and expend the resources and tools within and around them
Every individual, group, family, and community has strengths
Trauma and abuse, illness, and struggle may be injurious, but they may also be sources of challenge and opportunity
Assume that you don't know the upper limits of the capacity to grow and change, and take individual, group, and community aspirations seriously
We best serve clients by collaborating with them
Every environment is full of resources
Introducing empowerment to clients
Eliminate negative labels for our clients
Promote our clients' awareness of resources
Foster changes in our clients' mindsets
Believe in our clients
Reject paternalist views of clients
the tendency of any system to try to maintain itself in a state of equilibrium or balance; in a family system, there is a balance of the structure and functions within the family and even when the behavior patterns are unhealthy, it's often easier to leave things the way they are then to try and change because it is uncomfortable and would upset the balance
interactions that occur among family members; there is a set pattern of continuing loops of communication with one setting off another
invisible lines of separation that individuals or families give themselves in terms of communication and physical space
Closed: others from the outside are not allowed in and those from the inside do not participate in outside activities
Open: an exchange of activities, people may be in and out of the family home on a regular basis
form when a few members group together sometimes in opposition or competition with other members; may also be comprised of one person within the family who operates on his/her own; generally formed by generations, genders, and those with similar interests
patterns of behavior carried out by a family member according to a set of defined expectations; may hinder or help them within a family according to how that behavioral role is assigned
reflect the values of the system as well as explain the behaviors expected of each person in the family; explicit/overt (obvious and publicly acknowledged and discussed) and implicit/covert (unspoken but known by all members of a family) rules
Practice with families
You are establishing a relationship with several people at one time
You will need a broad range of assessment skills to gather all the data you need
You must be able to handle communication issues among family members.
You must engage different family members around a common goal
You need to maintain neutrality
47% are in married couple families (compared to 82% of white families), 53% supported by single parents (compared to 18% of white families); have collectivist values like sharing, affiliation, deference to authority, spirituality, and respect for elderly; much more likely to live within an extended family situation, family and gender roles more flexible
overrepresented in low-wage positions, lowest educational attainment, largest number of people living in a single household; family is emphasized over the individual and kinship networks serve as important support systems; patriarchal family system that emphasizes "male machismo" and "female virtue;" common issues include domestic violence, drug addiction, juvenile delinquency, and teen pregnancy; folk healing can play an important role in intervention
common issues include poverty, unemployment, alcoholism, and suicide; families are interdependent with extended family and tribal community, high priority is placed on children and their upbringing; roles differ between families but the role of women has always played a major positive feature ; family structure varies between tribes but extended family often plays a role and may be a caregiver; cooperation and sharing are valued and individualism is discouraged; noninterference and respect for the rights of others are valued, confrontation is not; being on time and sticking to a schedule aren't important; elders are respected; religion and rituals are super important
family is the center of life and there is a close bond between family members, with a focus on cohesion and togetherness; individualism is discouraged and duty to others overrides individual preferences; women are subservient to father and husband but are highly valued for their roles; elders are respected; strong mutual support is expected in the family and community, which is achieved through hierarchical pattern; relationships outside of the family (like marriage) are an interest of the whole family; code of family pride and honor limits how much internal problems can be known by outsiders (like social workers); great family pressure to succeed and be educated
Gay and lesbian
lack privileges available to heterosexual couples; have an equal desire to be in committed, lasting romantic relationships and equal satisfaction and attraction in relationship; equally value egalitarian relationships; similar levels and kinds of conflict but also some unique conflicts to face; similar predictors of satisfaction with and stability of relationships; relatively high levels of satisfaction in relationships
schematic diagram of a family's relationship system, in the form of a genetic tree; provides a visualization of the family relationships and patterns that may be influencing the family at a point in time; also enables social workers to examine the ebb and flow of the family's emotional processes in the intergenerational context; helps families identify recurring or transgenerational problems and help the family understand what issues are affecting them and how they might deal with things differently in the future; can also include info on religion, occupations, ethnic or cultural issues, illnesses, or important life events
Policy and Procedural Barriers
1. Case advocacy: Specific individuals, families or groups
2. Cause/class advocacy: Lobbying, supporting a cause
The rights of people
Their needed resources
1.You CANNOT engage in advocacy for a client unless you have permission from the client
This is because the client needs to have self-determination
2. A Concern for the Rights of others (You cannot advocate for a client's rights if it harms/ignores the rights of others)
3. You cannot increase a client's dependency on social workers
4 advocacy skills:
used to convince someone else to make a decision, change a decision, or in some other way move in a direction that benefits the client
Presenting data in a clear and convincing manner while being able to challenge and correct the adversary's information
Use problem-solving skills to reach an agreement
Process that involves two or more parties often with different power levels who are focused on producing a win—win compromise
Each party must be willing to give up something to get something else
Have a plan that identifies what the client system really wants
This should not be employed unless the client is fully aware of the potential consequences that such tactics might elicit
Step 1: Identify client problems
Step 2: Select client problems to work on
Step 3: Identify scale of behaviors
Step 4: Complete the goal attainment sheet
Step 5: Evaluate outcomes
Step 6: Calculate overall GAS score and each scale score
Goal Attainment Scaling
method of evaluating social work practice and what kinds of progress the client is making on each goal; involves carefully identifying the client's problems, assessing and assigning relative weights to each problem, listing the anticipated goals for each of the problems, collecting data on the actual outcomes achieved, and developing an average rating for the client(s)
GAS Pros and Cons
Advantages: flexibility, reliability, content validity, increases client motivations to achieve their goals, can be used to track goal achievement at all levels, can rank multiple goals, can scale goals in terms of desired outcome
Disadvantages: may not capture the client's real situation, some goals cannot be scaled as easily as others, goals must be measurable
Target Problem Scaling
Each problem is assessed using extremely serious, very serious, serious, not very serious, no problem
Target Problem Solving Pros and Cons
Advantages: it does not intrude on the helping process and fits well into the usual problem-solving process; simple, so it can be used even with clients who have limited educational development, verbal skills, or both. Reliability is good and the instrument can be used with multiple problems
Disadvantages: narrow focus on problems, content or face validity can be assured as long as the scale items are directly related to the identified problem, but validity and reliability must be pretested.
Task Achievement Scaling
This method could be used to help a client keep track of and follow up on important activities that must be completed. There is no time frame provided for task-achievement scaling, and it is assumed that the tasks will be completed within whatever time frame was established during earlier stages of the problem-solving process
Task Achievement Scaling Pros and Cons
Advantages: an excellent system for keeping track of important tasks required to help clients achieve their goals—this works equally for both client and social worker.
Disadvantage: sometimes completing the task does not lead to completion of the goal—suggesting the client is insufficiently motivated or that some barrier prevented full completion
Assessment 3 parts
Three Parts of Assessment:
1. Developing Rapport
2. Using correct theoretical constructs
3. Setting Attainable goals
Viewing clients from a person-in-environment and systems framework is recognized as one of the key aspects of which form of practice?
The court case that altered therapists' responsibility by mandating them to warn a person who may be in danger from the behavior of your client is known as:
Tarasoff vs Regents of the U of C
According to Asay and Lambert (1999) the single most important factor controlled by the
social work practitioner in the delivery of direct practice or psychotherapy services is:
Types of termination
client moves, client chooses not to continue, negotiated contract is completed, negotiated contract expires, social worker leaves job, social worker chooses not to continue with the client
General termination guidelines
At the beginning of the intervention→ you talk about termination
To allow client to have the end goal and encourage autonomy
All or most goals should have been reached
Termination should have been discussed throughout treatment
Identify tasks and activities for client after treatment
Teach client how to assess progress after treatment
Maintenance/stabilization of change
Help clients see recurrence as both an event and a process.
Identify high-risk factors and coping strategies; be aware of cues that can set off cravings.
Find different ways to cope with negative emotions.
Learn to cope with cognitive distortions.
Be aware of social pressure to act in specific ways.
Develop a social network supportive of their behavior change.
Develop a balanced lifestyle.
Develop a plan to deal with future recurrence of problem situations.