27 terms

Chapter 7 : Cellular Respiration Pre-AP Bio

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cellular respiration
A complex process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds; happens in the mitochrondia.
glycolysis
Biochemical pathway at the beginning of respiration which breaks glucose down to 2 pyruvate (pyruvic acid) molecules, 2 net ATP, and 2 NADH; takes place in cytosol.
anaerobic pathway
Pathways that operate in the absense of oxygen.
pyruvic acid
A three carbon molecule produced by the oxidation of glucose.
fementation
Biochemical pathway that includes glycolysis and additional steps are need to regenerate NAD+ in the absence of oxygen; takes place in cytosol.
lactic acid fementation
Anaerobic process which converts a 3C molecule into another 3C molecule.
alcoholic fermentation
Anaerobic process in which cells convert pyruvic acid (3C) into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol (2C); carried out by many bacteria and fungi such as yeasts.
kilocalorie
A unit of energy equal to 1,000 calories.
aerobic respiration
The process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen; in two cycles
1. Krebs
2. ETC
Krebs Cycle
A biochemical pathway that breaks down acetyl CoA into CO2, H atoms, and ATP. There are 5 steps and it results in the produciton of 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH, and 4 CO2.
Electron transport chain
(lines the inner membrane of the mitochondria and fold are called cristae). Produces 34 ATP molecules.
Flavin Mononucleotide
This is reduced by NADH producing NAD+ and FMN pumps the hudrogen ion released into the intermembrane space.
FADH2
Produced in the Krebs cycle, it is a reduced form of FAD, it is an electron carrier capable of creating 2 ATP from releasing its electrons to the electron transport chain
NADH
An energy-carrying coenzyme produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. NADH carries energy to the electron transport chain, where it is stored in 3 ATP.
Coenzyme A
Processes pyruvate into Acetyl CoA (accepts and transfers an acetyl group to a substrate).
oxygen
Is the final electron acceptor; it enables the"assembly line" to continue.
electrochemical gradient
This is produced by the build up of H+ ions in the intermembrane spaces which then allows the flow of H+ through ATP synthase which then forms ATP.
glycolysis
This phase of cellular respirations results in 2 net ATP and 2 NADH's.
CoA
This phase of cellular respirations results in 2 NADH and 2 CO2.
Krebs Cycle
This phase of cellular respirations results in 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH, and 4 CO2.
Cytochrome a₃
- last carrier of the ETC
- passes its electron to the final electron acceptor, O₂
- in addition, O₂ picks up 4 hydrogen ions from the surrounding medium and forms water
- 4H⁺ + 4e⁻ + O₂ --> 2H₂O
citrate
A six-carbon compound formed in the Kreb's cycle; it releases a CO₂ molecule and NADH and a 5C molecule.
alpha-ketoglutarate
Releases CO₂molecule and a H atom to form a 4C molecule and another NADH and an ATP.
succinate
A 4C molecule which releases a H atom, which is used to reduce a molecule of FAD+ to FADH and makes Malate.
malate
This 4C gives up an H atom which is used to reduce NAD+ to NADH and forms oxaloacetate which is recycled to keep the Krebs cycle going.
oxaloacetate
A four-carbon molecule; it binds with the two-carbon acetyl unit of acetyl-CoA to form citric acid in the first step of the Krebs cycle.
mitochondria
In eukaryotes the Krevs cycle and the electric transport chain take place in the ______.
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