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55 terms

Organic Chemistry

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Thiol functional group
SH
Alcohol functional group
OH
An alcohol with one alkyk group attached to it's carbon is known as what
primary alcohol
IUPAC: CH3-CH2-CH2-OH
propanol
IUPAC: CH3-OH
Methanol
Common: CH3-CH2-CH2-OH
Propyl Alcohol
Common: CH3-OH
Methyl Alcohol
Common: CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3-OH
Butyl Alcohol
Prefix for 1,3 atom separation
Meta
Prefix for 1,4 atom separation
Para
Prefix for 1,2 atom separation
Ortho
IUPAC: CH3-SH
Methanethiol
How do you name Thiols
alkane + "thiol"
IUPAC: CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-SH
butanethiol
CH2=CH-CH2-SH
2-propenethiol
Functional group containing one oxygen between two single bonded carbons
ether
Common system of naming ethers
Attached groups in ABC order + "ether"
Common: CH3-O-CH3
dimethyl ether
Common: CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3
diethyl ether
IUPAC naming system of ethers
alkoxy group + main alkane chain
IUPAC: CH3-O-CH3
methoxymethane
IUPAC: CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3
ethoxyethane
IUPAC: CH3-O-CH2-CH2-CH3
methoxypropane
IUPAC: CH3-CH2-O-Benzene
ethoxybenzene
What functional group contains an oxygen(s) atom in a carbon ring
Cyclic ethers
Cyclic ethers are known as ________ compounds because they have 1+ non-carbon atoms
heterocyclic
What naming system is used for cyclic ethers
Common
A pentagon cyclic ether (4C-1O) is called
furan
A hexagon cyclic ether (5C-1O) is called
Pyran
Cyclic ethers with 2+ oxygen atoms are called
dioxanes
Term used for a group of highly toxic compounds of dioxanes bonded to aromatic rings
dioxins
What makes alcohols water soluble?
hydrogen bonding
Lowest boiling point
Alkanes
Highest boiling points
Alcohols
Intermediate boiling points
Ethers
Carbon cutoff for alcohols soluble in water
4
Are ethers water soluble
Yes
Which is more water soluble; ethers or alcohols
alcohols
Reaction where H and OH are removed from adjacent carbons, leaving double bonds, and one H20 molecule
Alcohol dehydration
Dehydration reaction catalysts
H+ and Heat
Reaction: Dehydration of alcohols at lowest temperature
Ether formation
What reaction takes place when Hydrogen is lost and oxygen is gaines
Oxidation
The oxidation of primary alcohols produces what functional group
Aldehyde
What is an aldehyde
O=C-H
The oxidation of secondary alcohols produces what functional group
ketone
What is a ketone
O=C
What is the catalyst for oxidation reactions
[O]
When aldehydes oxidize further they become
carboxylic acid
Reaction: Removal of the hydrogen of a hydoxyl and a Hydrogen attached to corresponding carbon
alcohol oxidation
What are thiols only reaction
Oxidation
Reaction: Hydrogen atoms are removed from a sulfhydryl group
Thiol oxidation
The product of an oxidized thiol is called a
disulfide
What is a S-S group called
disulfide
Why don't tertiary alcohols oxidize
Carbon to carbon single bonds are too hard to break
Rule: In alcohol dehydration hydrogen is removed from the carbon with the smallest number of hydrogen atoms to form alkene
Saytzeffs Rule