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Chapter 8: Water and Minerals

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minerals
naturally occurring, inorganic, homogeneous substances; chemical elements
major minerals
essential mineral nutrients required in the adult diet in amounts greater than 100 milligrams per day
trace minerals
essential mineral nutrients required in the adult diet in amounts less than 100 milligrams per day
solvent
a substance that dissolves another and holds it in solution
dialysis
medical treatment for failing kidneys in which a person's blood is circulated through a machine that filters out toxins and wastes and returns cleansed blood to the body
water balance
balance between water intake and water excretion, which keeps the body's water content constant
dehydration
loss of water; symptoms progress rapidly, from thirst to weakness to exhaustion and delirium, and end in death
water intoxication
dangerous dilution of the body's fluids resulting from excessive ingestion of plain water
metabolic water
water degenerated in the tissues during the chemical breakdown of the energy-yielding nutrients in foods
diuretic
compound, usually a medication, causing increased urinary water excretion
hard water
water with high calcium and magnesium concentrations
soft water
water with a high sodium concentration
surface water
water that comes from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs
groundwater
water that comes from underground aquifers
aquifers
underground rock formations containing water that can be drawn to the surface for use
bottled water
drinking water sold in bottles
salts
compounds composed of charged particles (ions)
ions
electrically charged particles, such as sodium (positive) or chloride (negative)
electrolytes
compounds that partly dissociate in water to form ions, such as potassium or chloride
fluid and electrolyte balance
maintenance of the proper amounts and kinds of fluids and minerals in each compartment of the body
fluid and electrolyte imbalance
failure to maintain the proper amounts and kinds of fluids and minerals in every body compartment
acid-base balance
maintenance of the proper degree of acidity in each of the body's fluids
buffers
molecules that can help to keep the pH of a solution from changing by gathering or releasing H ions
hydroxyapatite
chief crystal of bone, formed from calcium and phosphorus
fluorapatite
crystal of bones and teeth, formed when fluoride displaces the "hydroxy" portion of hydroxyapatite; resists being dissolved back into body fluid
bone density
measure of bone strength, the degree of mineralization of the bone matrix
osteoporosis
reduction of bone mass of older persons in which the bones become porous and fragile
peak bone mass
highest attainable bone density for an individual; developed during the first 3 decades of life
hypertension
high blood pressure
prehypertension
blood pressure values that predict hypertension
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency or toxicity
cretinism
severe mental and physical retardation of an infant caused by the mother's iodine deficiency during pregnancy
hemoglobin
oxygen-carrying protein of the blood found in the red blood cells
myoglobin
oxygen-holding protein of muscles
heme
iron-containing portion of hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules
nonheme iron
dietary iron not associated with hemoglobin; iron of plants and other sources
MFP factor
factor present in meat, fish, and poultry that enhances the absorption of nonheme iron present in the same foods or in other foods eaten at the same time
tannins
compounds in tea and coffee that bind iron; also denature proteins
phytates
compounds present in plant foods that bind iron and may prevent its absorption
iron deficiency
condition of having depleted iron stores, which, at the extreme, causes iron-deficiency anemia
iron-deficiency anemia
form of anemia caused by a lack of iron and characterized by red blood cell shrinkage and color loss
anemia
condition of inadequate or impaired red blood cells; reduced number of volume of red blood cells along with too little hemoglobin in the blood
pica
craving for nonfood substances
iron overload
state of having more iron in the body than it needs or can handle, usually arising from hereditary defect
leavened
"lightened" by yeast cells, which digest some carbohydrate components of the dough and leave behind bubbles of gas that make the bread rise
fluorosis
discoloration of the teeth due to ingestion of too much fluoride during tooth development