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essential mineral nutrients required in the adult diet in amounts greater than 100 milligrams per day
essential mineral nutrients required in the adult diet in amounts less than 100 milligrams per day
medical treatment for failing kidneys in which a person's blood is circulated through a machine that filters out toxins and wastes and returns cleansed blood to the body
balance between water intake and water excretion, which keeps the body's water content constant
loss of water; symptoms progress rapidly, from thirst to weakness to exhaustion and delirium, and end in death
dangerous dilution of the body's fluids resulting from excessive ingestion of plain water
water degenerated in the tissues during the chemical breakdown of the energy-yielding nutrients in foods
fluid and electrolyte balance
maintenance of the proper amounts and kinds of fluids and minerals in each compartment of the body
fluid and electrolyte imbalance
failure to maintain the proper amounts and kinds of fluids and minerals in every body compartment
molecules that can help to keep the pH of a solution from changing by gathering or releasing H ions
crystal of bones and teeth, formed when fluoride displaces the "hydroxy" portion of hydroxyapatite; resists being dissolved back into body fluid
peak bone mass
highest attainable bone density for an individual; developed during the first 3 decades of life
severe mental and physical retardation of an infant caused by the mother's iodine deficiency during pregnancy
factor present in meat, fish, and poultry that enhances the absorption of nonheme iron present in the same foods or in other foods eaten at the same time
condition of having depleted iron stores, which, at the extreme, causes iron-deficiency anemia
form of anemia caused by a lack of iron and characterized by red blood cell shrinkage and color loss
condition of inadequate or impaired red blood cells; reduced number of volume of red blood cells along with too little hemoglobin in the blood
state of having more iron in the body than it needs or can handle, usually arising from hereditary defect
"lightened" by yeast cells, which digest some carbohydrate components of the dough and leave behind bubbles of gas that make the bread rise
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