320 Chapter 10 Questions
Terms in this set (62)
Explain three important user interface design principles
Layout - the interface should be a series of areas on the screen that are used consistently for different purposes
Minimize effort - interface should be simple to use
Aesthetics - interfaces should look inviting and be easy to use
Three fundamental parts of most user interfaces?
Navigation mechanism - the way user gives instructions to the system and tells it what to do
Input mechanism - the way in which the system captures information
Output mechanism - system provides info to the user or other systems
Why is content awareness important?
The interface makes the user aware of the information delivered through the interface with the least amount of user effort. If the user is constantly aware of where he is and what he is seeing, satisfaction will be high
What is white space and why is it important?
White space refers to areas on an interface that are intentionally left blank. Some white space is necessary to help the users find things on the interface
Under what circumstances should densities be low? High?
Low densities are preferred by infrequent or novice users of an interface
High densities can be acceptable to experienced users of the interface, because they are highly familiar with the information on the interface.
How can a system be designed to be used by experienced and first time users?
Systems should be set up so that the commonly used functions can be accessed quickly, pleasing the experienced users. To assist the novice users, guidance should be readily available, perhaps through the "show me" functions.
Why is consistency in design important? Why can too much consistency cause problems?
Consistency means that all parts of the same system work in the same way. This enables the users to predict what will happen because a function in one part of the system works the same way in other parts of the system
Problem with too much is that sometimes the users don't differentiate forms or reports that look very similar to each other
How can different parts of the interface be consistent?
The navigation controls can be consistent. Terminology can be consistent through the interface. Content portion of the screen that contains forms and reports should also present consistently designed reports and forms
Describe the basic process of user interface design
1. Identify use cases that describe commonly used patterns of actions that users will perform
2. Develop the interface structure diagram
3. Develop interface standards
4. Create prototype
5. Evaluate the prototypes and make changes as needed
What are use scenarios and why are they important?
Use cases describe how users interact with the system. These use cases will be valuable in ensuring that the interface permits the users to enact these use cases quickly and smoothly
What is a window navigation diagram and why is it used?
Defines the basic structure of the interface. The diagram helps depict the basic components of the interface and how they work together to provide the users needed functionality
Why are interface standards important?
Help define the basic, common design elements in the system. These standards help ensure consistency throughout the system
Explain the purpose and contents of interface metaphors
Provides a concept from the real world that helps the user understand the system and how it works. If a user understands
Explain the purpose and contents of interface objects
Fundamental building blocks fo the system. Object names should be based on the most understandable terms
Explain the purpose and contents of interface actions
Actions specify the navigation and command language style and the grammar of the system
Purpose and contents of interface icons
Pictures that are used to represent objects
Purpose and contents of interface template
defines the general appearance of all screens
Why do we prototype the user interface design?
It helps the users and programmers understand how the systems will perform
Compare and contrast the three types of interface design prototypes
Storyboards are really just pictures or drawings of the interface and how the system flows from one interface to another. HTML prototypes are web pages that show the fundamental parts of the system. Language prototypes create models of the interface in the actual language that will be used to implement the system
Why is it important to perform an interface evaluation before the system is built?
Because we need to do as much as we can to improve the interface design prior to implementation
Assessing the interface based on a checklist of design principles. Users are not involved in the process
Users see the interface at a meeting presentation, and they are "Walked-through- the parts of the interface.
The prototype has been created as an HTML or language prototype and the users can actually interact with the interface as if they were using the system
Formal usability testing
Users interacting with the interface without any guidance from the project team
Under what conditions is heuristic evaluation justified
Situations where the interface is well understood. It would be dangerous to use this technique if there was uncertainty about what should appear in the interface or how it should function
What are Krug's three design principles?
The user should never have to think about how to navigate the user interface. "Don't make me think.
The number of clicks that a user must perform to complete the task is somewhat irrelevant.
Minimize the number of words on the screen
Three basic principles of navigation design
Prevent mistakes. Mistakes can be reduced by labeling commands and actions appropriately and by limiting choices
Simplify recovery from mistakes. System should make it as easy as possible to correct user mistakes
Use consistent grammar order
How can you prevent mistakes?
Labeling commands and actions appropriately and by limiting choices
Explain the differences between object-action order and action-object order
Most commands require the user to specify an object, and the action to be performed on that object. The interface can require the user to first choose the object and then the action (object action order) or first choose the action and then the object (action-object order)
Describe the four types of navigation controls
Languages: command languages sometimes provide greater flexibilty than other approaches because the user can combine language elements in ways not predetermined by developers
Menus: menu presents the user with a list of choices. Easier to learn
Direct manipulation: user enters commands by working directly with interface objects
Why are menus the most commonly used navigation control?
Menus are easier to learn than languages. Clicking on an item with a pointing device or pressing a key that matches the menu choice takes very little effort.
Compare and contrast four types of menus
Menu bar: gives list of commands at the top of screen and is always displayed on the screen
Drop-down menu: menu that drops down immediately below another menu and disappears after one use
Pop-up menu: pops up, floats over screen, and then disappears after one use
Tab menu: multipage menu with one tab for each page that pops up and floats over the screen and continues to remain on the screen until it is closed
Under what circumstances would you use a drop down menu versus a tab menu?
Drop down menu can be used if the user is new or inexperienced. Tab menu is used more often when the user needs to change several settings in order to perform several related commands
Under what circumstances would you use an image map versus a simple list menu?
Image map is used only when the graphic image adds meaning to the menu. List menu is second level menu after the menu bar and performs action or leads to another cascading drop down menu
Describe five types of messages
Error message: something not permitted
Confirmation message: confirmation message asks the user if he or she is sure of performing this operation
Acknowledgement message: successfully completed
Delay message: informs the user that computer is working properly when requested action is delayed
Help message: provides additional info
Key factors in designing an error message
Explain the problems, explain the corrective action, suggest probable causes for error, provide ability to get more information, provide error number
What is context sensitive help? Does your word processor have context-sensitive help?
Provides information that is dependent on what the user was doing when the help was requested. Word processors do not have
How do an essential use case and real use case differ?
Essential only describes minimum essential issues necessary to understand the required functionality. Real use case will go further and describe a specific set of steps
Relationship between use cases and scenarios?
Use case is major process that system will perform that benefits an actor in some way and is labeled using a descriptive verb-noun phrase. Scenario is an outline of the steps that the users perform to accomplish some part of their work. One path through an essential use case
Relationship between real use cases and use scenarios?
Real use cases are derived from the essential use cases, use scenarios, and WNDs
Explain the three principles in the design of inputs
Online versus batch processing: online processing, each input item is entered into the system individually. Batch processing, inputs collected, gathered together and entered into the system at one time
Capture data at the source: Capture data in an electronic format at its original source or as close to the original source as possible
Minimize keystrokes: keystrokes cost time and money
Compare and contrast batch processing and online processing
Online processing is most commonly used when it is important to have real-time information about the business. EX: When you reserve an airline seat
Batch processing is where all inputs collected over time are gathered together and entered into the system one time in a batch. EX: Hourly payrolls
Why is capturing data at the source important?
Expensive if duplicates exist. Second, increases processing time. Third, increases cost and probability of error
Describe four devices that can be used for source data automation
Bar codes: automatically scan products and enter that data
Optical character recognition: read printed numbers and text
Magnetic stripe readers: read info encoded on a stripe of magnetic material similar to a diskette
Smart cards: contain microprocessors similar to credit card sized calculators
Describe five types of input:
Text: text box is used to enter text
Numbers: number box used to enter numbers
Selection boxes: enables the user to select a value from a predefined list
Different types of selection boxes: check boxes, radio buttons
Why is input validation important?
input validation is important as all data which is entered into the system needs to be validated in order to ensure their accuracy
Five types of input validation methods
Completeness check: ensures all required data have been entered
Range check: only numbers between correct values
Consistency check: combination of all data is valid
Format check: numeric fields should not permit users to type text data, etc
Database check: data are compared against information in the database
Three principles in the design of outputs
Understand report usage: understand how reports are used
Manage information load: reports only need to provide what users decide they need in order to perform their jobs
Minimize bias: entries that appear first in a list may receive more attention than those later in the list
Five types of outputs
Detailed report: detailed information about all items requested
Summary report: summary information about the items
Turn around document: both inputs and outputs on a report
Exception report: detailed information about certain specific items
When would you use electronic reports rather than paper reports?
PAPER: Easy to use and accessible in most situations. Highly portable at least in short reports.
ELECTRONIC: Produced on demand and allow users to search for certain words
What do you think are three common mistakes that novice analysts make in navigation design?
Analysts usually think that users have read the manual, attended proper training classes, and have external help readily available
What do you think are three common mistakes that novice analysts make in input design?
Capture data at the source, minimize keystrokes, input validation. Not doing these things...
What do you think are three common mistakes that novice analysts make in output design?
Not doing these things: Understand report usage, manage info load, and minimizing bias
Six challenges you face when developing mobile applications?
Screens are tiny
Screens come in different sizes
Keypads are tiny
People use mobile devices in multiple different environments
Some screens provide haptic feedback, some don't
Users are easily distracted from their devices
With regard to social media, what is the difference between "push" and "pull" approaches to interacting with customers?
PULL: user must come to you. PUSH: You put the information out to the user
Why is it important to keep your social media sites synced?
Makes your job of maintaining the different sites easier and allows your customers to have a consistent experience
How can you keep your customers engaged with your social media sites?
Enable your customers to share the content you have created. Add buttons for customers to easily email their friend's content from your site
What are some of the multilingual issues that you may face when developing for a global audience?
Getting good translations from the original language to the new language, screen space, and reading direction
how important is the proper use of color when developing websites for a global audience?
Very important. The same color can mean totally opposite things in different cultures.
Three cultural dimensions that are relevant to user interface design
Speed of messages, context, and time
Four cultural dimensions relevant to user interface design
Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs collectivism, masculinity vs femininity
What are some of the non-functional requirements that can influence the design of the human-computer interaction layer?
Operational, performance, security, cultural and political issues