AP Psychology Unit 14: Social Psychology
Terms in this set (52)
Heider's attribution theory
The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition. A teacher, for example, may wonder whether a student's hostility reflects an aggressive personality (a dispositional attribution) or a reaction to stress or abuse (a situational attribution).
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. The Chinese began with harmless requests but gradually escalated their demands (Schein, 1956). Having "trained" the prisoners to speak or write trivial statements, the communists then asked them to copy or create something more important—noting, perhaps, the flaws of capitalism. Then, perhaps to gain privileges, the prisoners participated in group discussions, wrote self-criticisms, or uttered public confessions. After doing so, they often adjusted their beliefs toward consistency with their public acts.
Zimbardo's Prison Experiment
An experiment where people pretended to be guards and prisoners. Within only a short while people instead of acting their roles, lived their roles. The experimental situation became so intense that they had to stop it at only 6 days.This experiment shows how important the power of the situation is.
Central route persuasion
Attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
Peripheral route persuasion
Attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
Festinger's cognitive dissonance
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited. For example, politician followers refuse to accept that their choice of leader is wrong.
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.A cluster of people stand gazing upward, and passersby pause to do likewise.
Obedience involves performing an action under the orders of an authority figure. It differs from compliance (which involves changing your behavior at the request of another person) and conformity (which involves altering your behavior in order to go along with the rest of the group). Instead, obedience involves altering your behavior because a figure of authority has told you to.
Also called unintentional mirroring, usually applies to people who are getting along so well, each tend to mimic each other's body posture, hand gestures, speaking accents, among others.
moods are contagious - affected by social factors if everyone in a bad mood, i will be too. tone of voice affects mood too
Asch's conformity experiment
To study conformity, Solomon Asch (1955) devised a simple test. As a participant in what you believe is a study of visual perception, you arrive at the experiment location in time to take a seat at a table where five people are already seated. The experimenter asks which of three comparison lines is identical to a standard line (Figure 14.2). Now comes the third trial, and the correct answer seems just as clear-cut, but the first person gives what strikes you as a wrong answer: "Line 3." When the second person and then the third and fourth give the same wrong answer, you sit up straight and squint. When the fifth person agrees with the first four, you feel your heart begin to pound. The experimenter then looks to you for your answer. Torn between the unanimity of your five fellow respondents and the evidence of your own eyes, you feel tense and much less sure of yourself than you were moments ago.
Milgram's obedience experiment
In this experiment the experimenter goes with the subject to begin the experiment. The experimenter is of high standing, is supported by prestigious institutions and looks professional. The subject is told to shock the learner every time they get a wrong answer. Each time they fail they need to be given a higher shock voltage. The learner is an actor and is safe throughout, without the subject knowing. The subject progress into the experiment and increasingly worry about the learner's safety. But, surprisingly most subjects went all the way until the end to the strongest voltage. See the power of authority...
Normative social influence
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. We clap when others clap.
Informational social influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality. It is better to follow everyone because they are most likely right. Denton set a record for the furthest distance driven on the wrong side of a British divided highway—30 miles, with only one minor sideswipe, before the motorway ran out and police were able to puncture her tires. Denton later explained that she thought the hundreds of other drivers coming at her were all on the wrong side of the road.
Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. For example, after a light turns green, drivers take about 15 percent less time to travel the first 100 yards when another car is beside them at the intersection than when they are alone.
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.Ex. Group projects!!!
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.Similarly, tribal warriors who depersonalize themselves with face paints or masks are more likely than those with exposed faces to kill, torture, or mutilate captured enemies.
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.Occurs when people within a group discuss an idea that most of them either favor or oppose.For example, Talking over racial issues increased prejudice in a high-prejudice group of high school students and decreased it in a low-prejudice group
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. Army wants to beat them in battle but aren't prepared for a sneak attack.
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members. For example african americans are often disrespected by being called the "n" word.
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans, about whom negative stereotypes blossomed.
The tendency to favor our own group. We favor our clique over another.
tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar
The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
Mere exposure effect
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
Is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.
Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people. For example, "All muslims are terrorists"
The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
The principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression.
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Difussion of responsibility
When there is an accident and there are a lot of people around; we feel less obligated to help.
Social exchange theory
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them. The expectation that your father will feed you food.
Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. An example of that kind of goal would be like goal of wanting to win a soccer game. You can't win by yourself. You need the collected effort of your team in order to win.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. In applying GRIT, one side first announces its recognition of mutual interests and its intent to reduce tensions. It then initiates one or more small, conciliatory acts. Without weakening one's retaliatory capability, this modest beginning opens the door for reciprocity by the other party. Should the enemy respond with hostility, one reciprocates in kind
a sub-topic of social psychology that focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations. It focuses on the role that cognitive processes play in our social interactions. The way we think about others plays a major role in how we think, feel, and interact with the world around us.
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