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APUSH Period 4: 1800-1848
Terms in this set (68)
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Election of 1800 (Revolution of 1800)
The Election of 1800 was the first peaceful transition of power from one party to another. Politics had become more partisan between the Federalists, led by President John Adams, and the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson, who had been opponents in the previous election
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Political party lead by Andrew Jackson from 1828 to 1856. Campaigned against strong central government and fought to end elitism.
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
1755-1835. U.S. Chief Supreme Court Justice. Oversaw over 1000 decisions, including Marbury v Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.
Marbury vs Madison, 1803
Established the power of judicial review.
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws
McCulloch v Maryland, 1819
Established national supremacy; established implied powers; use of elastic clause; state unable to tax fed. institution; John Marshall; "the power to tax involves the power to destroy."
Gibbons v Ogden, 1824
Affirmed federal control of interstate commerce under commerce clause of the Constitution.
An economy that allocates resources through the decentralized decisions of many firms and households as they interact in markets for goods and services
Secretary of Treasury to Jefferson who reduced the national debt and balanced the budget.
Embargo Act, 1807
Law that forbade American ships from sailing to foreign ports and closed American ports to British ships
Panic of 1819
A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.
Panic of 1837
Ecnomic downturn caused by loose lending practices of state banks' and overspeculation. Martin Van Buren spent most of his time in office attempting to stablize and lessen the economic situation
Debates over the tariff and internal improvements
The South opposed money being used from tariffs for internal improvements
Southern defense of slavery
The pro slavery whites launched a massive defense of slavery, including claims that slavery was supported by the authority of the Bible and the wisdom of Aristotle, that it was good for the Africans, taking them from the barbarism of the jungle and introducing them to Christian civilization. One often used argument was that the relationship between masters and slave resembled that of a family.
In 1661 a set of "codes" was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.
Calhoun's Speech in the U.S. Senate, 1837
Declared that slavery was a "positive good"
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
A leading evangelist of the Second Great Awakening, he preached that each person had capacity for spiritual rebirth and salvation and that through individual effort could be saved. His concept of "utility of benevolence" proposed the reformation of society as well as of individuals.
Seneca Falls Convention, 1848
Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A member of the women's right's movement in 1840. She was a mother of seven, and she shocked other feminists by advocating suffrage for women at the first Women's Right's Convention in Seneca, New York 1848. Stanton read a "Declaration of Sentiments" which declared "all men and women are created equal."
Frances (Franney) Wright
One of the era's most radical utopians; she established a community based on the principles of gradual emancipation and colonization; she came from a wealthy Scottish family, but at a very young age she dreamed of living in America and pursuing her ideal of becoming a social reformer; in 1824 she arrived with Marquis de Lafayette, and stayed as a guest at Thomas Jefferson's Monticello
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendent of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
American educator who was the first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, suggested reforms in education
Idealistic and impractical communities. Who, Rather than seeking to create an ideal government or reform the world, withdrew from the sinful, corrupt world to work their miracles in microcosm, hoping to imitate the elect state of affairs that existed among the Apostles.
1766-1842 A free African American patriot who worked on an American warship during the Revolution. Later became a sucessful businessman who helped organize abolitionists
American Colonization Society, 1817
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
American abolitionist and feminist. Born into slavery, she escaped in 1827 and became a leading preacher against slavery and for the rights of women., United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
Liberty Party, 1840
Political Action necessary to end slavery
American Presbyterian minister, journalist, and news paper editor who was murdered by a mob for his abolitionist views
(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
A style of art and architecture that emerged in the later 18th century. Part of a general revival of interest in classical cultures, Neoclassicism was characterized by the utilization of themes and styles from ancient Greece and Rome.
Hudson River School, 1825-1875
Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
John James Adubon
He was an artist who specialized in painting wild fowl. he had such works as birds of america. ironically, he shot a lot of birds for sport when he was young. the audubon society for the protection of birds was named after him. his depictions of western wildlife contributed to the western population movements
An African American preacher who helped start the free African society and the African Methodist Episcopal church
A free African American who urged blacks to take their freedom by force
Work songs, devotional music--"spirituals" and gospel hymns, African American
"Father of the Factory System" in America; escaped Britain with the memorized plans for the textile machinery; put into operation the first spinning cotton thread in 1791.
(1809-1884) American inventor and industrialist, he invented the mechanical reaper and harvesting machine that quickly cut down wheat.
American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
Developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the process, and the workers were almost all single young farm women, who worked for a few years and then returned home to be housewives. Managers found these young women were the perfect workers for this type of factory life.
Baldwin Locomotive Works
An American builder of railroad (railway) locomotives.
Anthracite coal mining
A strike that involved miners, and that endangered Americans...without coal they would freeze to death! Roosevelt handled it by bringing the mine owners and a union leader to the white house to settle the issue. After threatening to overtake the mines with military power, the mine owners agreed to a 10% wage raise and 9 hour days for the miners, but not union recognition
Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
American System, 1815
Program of internal improvements and protective tariffs promoted by Speaker of the House Henry Clay in his presidential campaign of 1824.
Erie Canal, 1817-1825
Built from 1817- 1825 ; 7 million dollars. The canal allowed farm products from the great lakes region to flow east ; people and manufactured goods from east to flow west ; trade stimulated by canal helped new york city become the nation's largest city.
Privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them
National Road (Cumberland Road), 1811
The first highway built with entirely federal funds. Congress authorized the road in 1806 during the Jefferson Administration.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 1828
The first company to begin actual road operations, which opened a thirteen mile stretch of track in 1830.
Boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland that divided the Middle Colonies from the Southern Colonies
Cult of domesticity
A prevailing view among upper and middle class women during the 19th century. According to these ideals, women were supposed to embody perfect virtues in all senses. The virtues were piety, purity, submission, and domesticity.
Lydia Maria Child
This white woman wrote popular and highly successful historical novels. In 1831, she attended a public meeting where she heard William Lloyd Garrison give a speech against slavery. She was moved and in 1833, her book, An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans Called Africans, was published. The book was powerful and caused many notable whites to join the anti-slavery movement, including Charles Sumner. Her traditional audience and the sales of her books dropped dramatically and she started a weekly newspaper instead, the Anti-Slavery Standard. She, along with Lucretia Mott and Maria Chapman, were elected to the executive committee of the Anti- Slavery Society in 1839. While she continue to fight for racial equality, she broadened her views to include the rights of women and Native Americans. Name this notable woman.
National Trades' Union, 1834
Organized in 1834, this association was created after the New York Trades Union called a convention of delegates from numerous city centrals. Headed by Ely Moore, who was elected to Congress on the Tammany ticket, this union disintegrated along with a number of other national conventions with the Panic of 1837
Second Bank of the United States, 1834
A bank Congress charted that had the power to establish a national currency to make large loans to business.
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Tariff of Abominations, 1828
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
Destruction of the Second Bank of the United States, 1833
Lead to the panic of 1837 and all that lead up to it, and a change in the American Political Party System.
Jackson's main action in the killing of the Second National Bank was when he transferred $10 million in government deposits to privately owned state or "pet" banks.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
A leading attorney who argued many famous cases in the Supreme Court. Congressman from New Hampshire and senator representing Massachusetts.
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
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